An expungement (under California Penal Code § 1203.4) allows you to withdraw a plea of guilty or no contest, to re-enter a plea of not guilty, and to have the criminal case dismissed. The expungement process releases you from virtually “all penalties and disabilities” of misdemeanor or felony conviction.1
Here are five key things to know:
- You may be eligible for expungement if you 1) completed probation and 2) did not do time in state prison (or would not have done prison had your case occurred after “Realignment” under Proposition 47).
- You are not eligible for expungement if you have an open criminal case or if your conviction was for a serious, violent, or sex offender crime.
- With the passage of SB 731 and AB 1076, expungement is an automatic process once the court dismisses your case.
- Expunged records do not have to be disclosed to an employer even after they make a conditional offer of employment.2
- If you cannot expunge your record, you may be able to get relief through a Certificate of Rehabilitation, governor’s pardon, or sentence commutation.
To help you better understand Penal Code 1203.4 expungements, our California criminal defense lawyers discuss, below:
- 1. California Expungement Law (PC 1203.4)
- 2. How do I expunge a criminal record in California?
- 3. Frequently Asked Questions about Penal Code 1203.4 PC Expungements.
If, after reading this article, you would like more information about how to expunge a criminal record in California, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group.
An expungement is a form of post-conviction relief authorized by California Penal Code 1203.4 PC. It releases you from “all penalties and disabilities” arising out of a conviction.
As criminal defense attorney John Murray3 explains,
“In today’s economy — where finding a job is tougher than ever — you want to do everything in your power to make yourself the most desirable candidate. Clearly, this includes being able to state that you have a clean criminal record–something that a PC 1203.4 expungement may allow you to do.”
Expungements are also beneficial for securing or maintaining California professional licenses and for joining many professional organizations. Dismissal of an offense offers a “fresh start” from an otherwise criminal past.
- successfully completed probation (either felony probation or misdemeanor probation), and
- are not currently:
- charged with a criminal offense,
- on probation for a criminal offense, or
- serving a sentence for a criminal offense.4
If you are applying for PC 1203.4 relief, you must have successfully completed probation in its entirety (or obtained an early termination of probation, discussed below).
What does it mean to “successfully complete probation”?
“Successfully completing probation” means that you:
- completed all the terms of your probation (that is, paid all fines and restitution, completed any counseling programs, community service, etc.),
- attended all required court appearances (either personally or through an attorney), and
- did not commit any new crimes while on probation.
How does “realignment” affect eligibility under PC 1203.4?
If you went to California state prison — either at the time of judgment or because of a probation violation — you do not generally qualify for a PC 1203.4 expungement.
But there is an exception if you would have served your sentence in county jail if you had committed the crime after “realignment.” (For more information, please see the discussion on Penal Code 1203.42 in Section 1.4, below).5
Can prisoners who worked as firefighters through a prison fire camp get an expungement?
In many cases, yes. And you may be able to get your parole waived. Learn more here: California Assembly Bill 2147 (2020).
As noted above, a conviction cannot be expunged if you were sentenced to state prison UNLESS the crime is one for which you would now be sentenced to jail.
Beyond that, there are also certain felony offenses that can never be expunged. These include serious sex offenses committed against children, such as
- Penal Code 286(c) PC California’s law against sodomy with a child,
- Penal Code 288 PC California’s lewd acts with a child law,
- Penal Code 287 (c) PC California’s law against oral copulation with a child, and
- Penal Code 261.5(d) PC California’s statutory rape law, which prohibits sexual intercourse between persons who are 21 years and older and persons younger than 16.6
It is generally true that you must have successfully completed all conditions of probation to be granted an expungement.
But even if you received a probation violation, all hope is not lost. The court will hold a special hearing to determine whether you are nonetheless a good candidate for expungement.7
The court’s discretion to dismiss a conviction
In the wake of a probation violation, the court has wide discretion as to whether to grant or deny a petition for a PC 1203.4 expungement. Factors that the judge may consider include (but are not limited to):
- your overall performance while on probation,
- the seriousness of the underlying conviction,
- your criminal history, and
- any additional evidence that shows why you are deserving of this relief, such as
- opportunity to obtain a good job,
- support of the applicant’s family,
- strong community ties, etc.
If you were convicted and sentenced to state prison, you may still be able to expunge a conviction. You are eligible if you would have been sentenced to jail for the crime had it been committed after 2011’s Proposition 47 Realignment legislation.
This exception is found in California Penal Code 1203.42 PC. Relief under Penal Code 1203.42 is not automatic but may be granted by a court, in its discretion. Judges can grant the expungement if they believe it would be in the interests of justice.
To qualify under PC 1203.42, the crime must have been one currently punishable in county jail AND:
- at least two years have passed since you completed your sentence, and
- you are not:
- under supervised release for a crime,
- serving a sentence for any offense,
- on probation for any offense, or
- charged with the commission of any crime.
How do I obtain an expungement under PC 1203.42?
The expungement process in California starts by filing a petition with the court under Penal Code 1203.42. You may make the application:
- in person,
- by an attorney, or
- by a probation officer authorized in writing.
The court may then either:
- Permit you to withdraw your plea of guilty or “nolo contendere” (no contest) and enter a plea of not guilty, or,
- If you have been convicted after a plea of not guilty, set aside the verdict of guilty.
In either case, the court will then dismiss the accusations against you. Afterward, you will be released from all penalties and disabilities resulting from the offense to the same extent as a regular expungement under PC 1203.4.
Expunging criminal records in California requires the following five steps:
Step 1: Hire an attorney
The expungement process is confusing and time- and paperwork-intensive. There are many opportunities for error that could get an application denied. But experienced criminal defense attorneys know how to streamline the process and get it right on the first try.
Step 2: Fill out the proper forms
A criminal defense attorney knows which forms to use for each situation. Otherwise, most expungement application forms are available at the relevant courthouse or through an internet search.
For example, if you completed misdemeanor probation, you would fill out a petition to dismiss a misdemeanor under PC 1203.4. If probation has not been completed, you would instead fill out a motion to terminate probation. And if that is denied, you would fill out a petition for dismissal.
Note that felonies cannot be expunged until they get reduced to misdemeanors. Courts usually grant requests to reduce wobblers (crimes that can be felonies or misdemeanors) down to misdemeanors.
But non-wobbler felonies can only be reduced to a misdemeanor by filling out a form pursuant to PC § 17(b)(3). Only then can you fill out a petition to dismiss a misdemeanor under PC 1203.4.
Also note that you must fill out one form for each conviction to be expunged. You can also include character references with the expungement petition.
Step 3: File for expungement
Once the proper forms are filled out, they must be filed with the court where the case was heard. The court will usually respond within five months.
Every court has its own policies and fees. Sometimes expungement forms must be delivered in person or mailed.
Timely filing paperwork is critical. For example, you must provide the prosecutor with at least 15 days’ notice prior to the hearing. This is to give the prosecutor an opportunity to review the case and object if desired.
If you are indigent, you may be able to get financial assistance to cover the filing fees.
Step 4: Prepare for the expungement hearing
Whether you have to appear at your expungement hearing depends on the case. Your criminal defense attorney will keep you informed and help prepare for the hearing if necessary.
Ultimately, the judge makes the decision whether to grant an expungement. There is no jury. You are more likely to get an expungement if you:
- are able to hold down a job,
- had no additional convictions, and
- have completed all required community service.
Step 5: Refile if the petition is denied. Seal the expungement if the petition is granted.
If the judge denies the expungement, after six months you can file a new petition with any required changes.
If the judge grants the expungement, the defense attorney should then seal the case so it is no longer visible to the public. And you can deny ever having a criminal record in most situations. Some exceptions are if you:
- run in public elections,
- apply for a state license, or
- seek employment with the California Lottery Commission.
There are numerous benefits to obtaining a California expungement. Some of the most significant include:
- An employer may not discriminate against your job application based on expunged convictions9;
- Easier to obtain a state professional license;
- Expunged convictions can’t be used to impeach your credibility as a witness in court (unless you are the defendant being prosecuted in the subsequent case);10 and
- In some cases, helping avoid certain immigration consequences such as deportation.
Limitations on the disclosure of expunged convictions to potential employers
The value of a PC 1203.4 expungement has increased significantly in recent years.
This is because, in the past, your criminal history was unlikely to be discovered by anyone but law enforcement.
But then information companies began indexing criminal court records into vast national databases that could be searched by name and date of birth.
This new technology allows:
- potential employers,
- licensing agencies, and
- professional organizations
to conduct a background check and find a criminal record in moments.
This is where the benefits of an expungement come into play. It is easy now for potential employers to find out about a past criminal conviction.
But legally if a conviction has been expunged, they may not use it to deny you employment.
Unfortunately, there are several limitations on what an expungement under California Penal Code 1203.4 PC can do. For example, an expungement will not:
- overturn a driver’s license suspension or revocation,11
- restore California gun rights under Penal Code 29800 PC California’s felon with a firearm law,12 or
- end the duty to register as a California sex offender under Penal Code 290 PC.13
Expunged convictions may also still be used as prior convictions to enhance sentencing. For instance, an expunged DUI conviction still counts as a prior if you are later arrested for another DUI.
And an expunged conviction that would count as a “strike” for purposes of California’s three-strikes law is still a strike.14
How to obtain the relief an expungement cannot grant
Additional rights can often be restored through alternative avenues of post-conviction relief.
- A California Certificate of Rehabilitation, and/or
- A California Governor’s Pardon15
If you are eligible under PC 1203.4, you may petition the court to expunge a conviction on the earlier of:
- completion of probation, or
- early termination of probation (which must be granted by a court).
(Note that if you qualify under PC 1203.42, you may only petition the court if at least two years have passed since the completion of your sentence).
Can I petition for early termination and expungement at the same time?
Many times, a California criminal defense lawyer can expedite the expungement process by “packaging” a number of motions into one.
The most common example of such packaging includes asking the court in a single proceeding to:
- grant an early termination of probation (which the court has the option of granting as long as the petitioner is in compliance with the terms of his or her probation),
- reduce a felony to a misdemeanor (in cases where the felony offense is classified as a “wobbler” — that is, a charge that the district attorney could have filed as either a felony or a misdemeanor), and
- expunge a conviction.
Many people who contact us about expungements also wish to “seal and destroy” adult and juvenile criminal records.
Sealing and destroying arrest records per SB 383 is a totally different process from expunging records of criminal convictions under PC 1203.4.
You are entitled to have a California arrest record sealed and destroyed if:
- you were arrested, but the prosecutor never filed criminal charges, or
- the case was dismissed in court, or
- you were acquitted by a jury following a jury trial, or
- the conviction was overturned and dismissed on appeal, or
- you successfully completed a program of diversion, such as Prop 36 drug diversion or Penal Code 1000 deferred entry of judgment,16
Sealing an arrest record generally allows you to state that you have never been arrested for a crime. This is because in order to seal a record the judge must declare you factually innocent.
Note that as of July 1, 2023 with the passage of Senate Bill 731 & Assembly Bill 1076 – The Clean Slate Act, most people’s arrest and conviction records will get automatically cleared from their criminal record through a process called “automatic relief”. Learn more here. (Note that automatic relief does not restore your firearm rights.)
Sealing a juvenile arrest record
Sealing a California juvenile court record provides you with the same benefits as sealing an adult record. You may seal a juvenile arrest record if:
- you are currently an adult, or the jurisdiction of the juvenile court terminated at least five years ago,
- as an adult, you have not been convicted of any crimes of moral turpitude (that is, a crime involving dishonesty or immoral behavior), AND
- there is no pending civil litigation based on the juvenile incident.
Once the judge grants the motion to seal and destroy a juvenile arrest record it is sealed for 3 years and destroyed thereafter.17
Q. How long will my criminal record stay on the books after I get an expungement?
A. Criminal records are maintained indefinitely even if a conviction was expunged under Penal Code 1203.4 PC. Criminal records do not automatically go away after a certain amount of time.
If the court doesn’t expunge or seal and destroy the record(s), the conviction(s) will always be a part of your criminal record.
Q. Who can access my criminal record after I get an expungement?
A. Criminal records are “public records.” So anyone can access a criminal record even after a PC 1203.4 expungement — unless the record is sealed.
People who often access criminal records include:
- potential employers,
- landlords, and
- licensing agencies.
Q. What happens when I expunge my record?
A. In California, when a record is expunged, a plea of guilty or no-contest (or a conviction after trial) gets set aside by a judge. You then enter a new plea of “not guilty” and the judge dismisses the case.18
Q. How long does it take to expunge my record?
A. Generally, we can have a PC 1203.4 petition filed and heard within one to two months. But this can vary depending on the county in which you reside.
In cases where you are actively seeking employment, we can seek to expedite the process.
Q. How do I find out if I qualify to have my record expunged?
A. Generally, you qualify for an expungement under Penal Code 1203.4 if you:
- committed a felony or misdemeanor and were not incarcerated in the California state prison,
- fulfilled the terms of your probation, and
- were not convicted of one of the specific crimes that make you ineligible to receive a California expungement.19
But, to make sure, contact a California criminal defense attorney.
Q. What is “felony reduction”?
A. If you were convicted of a “wobbler” (that is, a crime that can be charged as either a felony or misdemeanor), you can generally petition to reduce the felony conviction to a misdemeanor.20
Q. Will you reduce my felony to a misdemeanor prior to expunging the record?
A. Yes. If your conviction was for a wobbler, we will petition the court to have the felony reduced to a misdemeanor prior to having it expunged under PC 1203.4. We will also ask for an early termination of probation where appropriate.
Q. Does it cost more to have my felony reduced BEFORE expungement?
A. No. The price is the same. Reducing the felony first just expedites the process.
Q. Do I have to appear in court?
A. Generally not. The California expungement process typically allows a lawyer to appear on your behalf through all stages of the proceedings.21
Q. What is the filing fee for a California expungement?
A. It varies, depending on
- the county in which you reside, and
- whether you were convicted of a misdemeanor or a felony.
For example, Los Angeles County doesn’t charge a filing fee per se, but will charge a maximum of $120 once the court rules on the motion. San Bernardino County charges a $270 filing fee. San Diego County charges a petition fee of $60 for a misdemeanor and $120 for a felony.
All counties have some type of financial assistance available if you are unable to pay.
Q. How will I know that my California criminal record was expunged?
A. We provide you with a signed order by a California Superior Court Judge setting aside the conviction and dismissing the case.
Q. After my record is expunged, can I answer “No” if I’m asked whether I have a criminal record?
A. Yes. This is one of the benefits of obtaining a PC 1203.4 California expungement. Once the court grants an expungement, you can legally answer “no” if asked about a criminal record UNLESS:
- You are applying to become a peace officer or run for public office,
- You are applying to work for the California Lottery Commission, or
- You are applying for a state license.22
Q. Will expunging my record help me find a better job?
A. Many times, yes. If the employer doesn’t run a background check, they will probably never find out about the conviction. Remember — you no longer have to disclose any conviction unless and until the employer makes a conditional offer of employment.
But even if an employer does conduct a background check, it will show if a conviction was expunged. This will tell the potential employer that a California court has said you are ready to make a “fresh start”.
Q. Will expunging my record help me obtain a state license?
A. Often times, yes. Many California state licensing authorities require expungement of a conviction under Penal Code 1203.4 PC before they will issue a license.
But even when an expungement is not enough, we may be able to help you obtain a “Certificate of Rehabilitation,” which offers even more benefits.23
Q. What is a “Certificate of Rehabilitation”?
A. A Certificate of Rehabilitation (“COR”) is a court order stating you have been rehabilitated from your criminal past.24
You must wait between seven (7) and ten (10) years after being released from custody, depending on the specific offense for which you were convicted.25
There are many benefits to a Certificate of Rehabilitation, including:
- A certificate of rehabilitation becomes an automatic application for a Governor’s Pardon;
- You cannot be denied a state license without other cause;
- A COR sends a message to prospective employers that you have overcome your criminal history and are prepared to make a fresh start.
But remember — an expungement or COR is not necessary for an arrest that did not result in a conviction. Employers (and prospective employers) may not discriminate against you based simply on arrests. In fact, they aren’t even legally allowed to inquire about them.26
Q. What is a Governor’s Pardon?
A. A Governor’s Pardon is the ultimate relief from the penalties and disabilities associated with a criminal conviction.27
You must usually wait at least ten (10) years after being discharged from probation or parole in order to apply to the governor for a pardon. Or you must obtain a finding of factual innocence (discussed above under section 2. sealing and destroying records).28
If you receive a Certificate of Rehabilitation, you may apply for a pardon in as little as seven (7) years after release from custody. This is because a COR acts as an automatic application for a pardon.
Q. What are my options for sealing and destroying my California arrest records after I get an expungement?
A. There are a number of ways to seal records. The most common are:
- sealing of juvenile records,
- sealing of arrest records, and
- sealing of records after plea withdrawal and case dismissal.
Juvenile arrest records
In order to be eligible for sealing a juvenile record, two criteria must be met:
- The juvenile court jurisdiction must have terminated at least five years ago.
- You must not have suffered a conviction for a crime of moral turpitude (that is a dishonest or immoral crime) as an adult.29
But even if these two criteria have been met, certain serious crimes cannot be sealed.30 These crimes include:
- robbery and
- child molestation.
Sealing of records generally
Except as set forth above, sealing an arrest record is generally possible if
- You were arrested and no accusatory pleading was filed,
- The DA dismissed the case, or
- You were found “not guilty” after a California jury trial.31
Also, if you prove that you were factually innocent of the charges, the arrest record will be ordered sealed for 3 years and destroyed thereafter.32
Q. I have a felony and can’t get a green card or citizenship. Can you help me?
A. Many times, yes. We are often able to get a non-U.S. citizen’s wobbler felony reduced to a misdemeanor. This makes you eligible for permanent residency and ultimately U.S. citizenship. Or we may be able to get a conviction set aside completely.
Once we review the facts and circumstances of your case, we research the most promising options to help avoid immigration issues such as deportation or removal.
Q. I am required to register as a sex offender pursuant to California Penal Code 290 PC. Can an expungement help me obtain relief from my lifetime duty to register as a sex offender and get off Megan’s list?
A. No. A California Penal Code 1203.4 PC expungement cannot provide this type of relief. But a Certificate of Rehabilitation and Governor’s pardon often can, as long as the conviction was not for a sex crime against a child.33
Q. What about my past marijuana convictions?
A. The California Department of Justice reviewed and sealed all past marijuana convictions that are no longer considered crimes now that recreational marijuana is legal. This process should have been done by July 1, 2020. See California Assembly Bill 1793 (2018).
California Superior Court Expungement Forms:
- California Penal Code 1203.42 PC.
PC 1203.4. (a) (1) In any case in which a defendant has fulfilled the conditions of probation for the entire period of probation, or has been discharged prior to the termination of the period of probation, or in any other case in which a court, in its discretion and the interests of justice, determines that a defendant should be granted the relief available under this section, the defendant shall, at any time after the termination of the period of probation, if they are not then serving a sentence for any offense, on probation for any offense, or charged with the commission of any offense, be permitted by the court to withdraw their plea of guilty or plea of nolo contendere and enter a plea of not guilty; or, if they have been convicted after a plea of not guilty, the court shall set aside the verdict of guilty; and, in either case, the court shall thereupon dismiss the accusations or information against the defendant and except as noted below, the defendant shall thereafter be released from all penalties and disabilities resulting from the offense of which they have been convicted, except as provided in Section 13555 of the Vehicle Code.
See, for example, People v. E.B. (Cal. App. 6th Dist. 2020), 264 Cal. Rptr. 3d 678.
- California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law. As it is, California’s ban the box law, AB 1008, bars employers from asking about your criminal record until there is a conditional offer of employment.
- Newport Beach criminal defense lawyer John Murray represents clients throughout Orange County including Newport Beach, Fullerton, Laguna Beach, Irvine, Santa Ana, Anaheim and Westminster.
- See California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law, endnote 2, above.
- See California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law, endnote 2, above.
- California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law. (“(b) Subdivision (a) of this section does not apply to any misdemeanor that is within the provisions of subdivision (b) of Section 42001 of the Vehicle Code, to any violation of [the California Penal Code] subdivision (c) of Section 286 [California’s law against sodomy with a child], Section 288 [California’s child molestation law], subdivision (c) of Section 287 [California’s law against oral copulation with a child], Section 288.5, or subdivision (j) of Section 289, any felony conviction pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 261.5 [California’s statutory rape law], or to any infraction.”)
- California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law, endnote 2, above. A California probation violation qualifies as “any other case in which a court, in its discretion and the interests of justice, determines that a defendant should be granted the relief available under this section.”
- California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law. (“(e) Relief shall not be granted under this section unless the prosecuting attorney has been given 15 days’ notice of the petition for relief. The probation officer shall notify the prosecuting attorney when a petition is filed, pursuant to this section. It shall be presumed that the prosecuting attorney has received notice if proof of service is filed with the court. (f) If, after receiving notice pursuant to subdivision (e), the prosecuting attorney fails to appear and object to a petition for dismissal, the prosecuting attorney may not move to set aside or otherwise appeal the grant of that petition.”)
- California Labor Code 432.7 — Disclosure of arrest or detention not resulting in conviction or referral or participation in diversion programs; violations; remedies; exception; screening prospective concessionaires. See also California Code of Regulations 7287.4 — Employee selection.
- California Evidence Code 788 — Prior felony conviction. (“For the purpose of attacking the credibility of a witness, it may be shown by the examination of the witness or by the record of the judgment that he has been convicted of a felony unless. (c) The accusatory pleading against the witness has been dismissed under the provisions of Penal Code Section 1203.4 [California’s expungement law], but this exception does not apply to any criminal trial where the witness is being prosecuted for a subsequent offense.”)
- California Vehicle Code 13555 VC — Effect of California expungement. (“A termination of probation and dismissal of charges pursuant to [California Penal Code] Section 1203.4 or a dismissal of charges pursuant to Section 1203.4a of the Penal Code does not affect any revocation or suspension of the privilege of the person convicted to drive a motor vehicle under this chapter. Such person’s prior conviction shall be considered a conviction for the purpose of revoking or suspending or otherwise limiting such privilege on the ground of two or more convictions.”)
- California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law. (“Dismissal of an accusation or information pursuant to this section does not [restore the right to own or possess a firearm under Penal Code 29800 PC California’s “felon with a firearm” law]. [It does not] permit a person to own, possess, or have in his or her custody or control any firearm or prevent his or her conviction under Section 29800.”)
- California Penal Code 290.007 PC — Effect of California expungement. (“Any person required to register pursuant to any provision of the Act shall register in accordance with the Act, regardless of whether the person’s conviction has been dismissed pursuant to [California Penal Code] Section 1203.4, unless the person obtains a certificate of rehabilitation and is entitled to relief from registration pursuant to Section 290.5.”)
- California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law. (“However, in any subsequent prosecution of the defendant for any other offense, the prior conviction may be pleaded and proved and shall have the same effect as if probation had not been granted or the accusation or information dismissed.”); see also United States v. Hayden (9th Cir. Cal., 2001), 255 F.3d 768. (re. sentencing guidelines) and Ryan-Lanigan v. Bureau of Real Estate (Cal. App. 3d Dist., 2013), 222 Cal. App. 4th 72, 165 Cal. Rptr. 3d 582 (re. professional licenses).
- See same. (“The probationer shall be informed, in his or her probation papers, of this right and privilege and his or her right, if any, to petition for a certificate of rehabilitation and pardon.”)
- California Penal Code 851.8 PC — Sealing and destroying records.
- California Welfare and Institutions Code 781 — Sealing juvenile records. See also California Welfare and Institutions Code 781.5 — Sealing juvenile records.
- See California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law, endnote 2, above.
- California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law, endnote 2, above; see also People v. McLernon (Cal. App. 2d Dist.), 174 Cal. App. 4th 569, 94 Cal. Rptr. 3d 570.
- California Penal Code 17(b) PC — Felony reductions [may be petitioned for along with expungement].
- California Penal Code 1203.4 PC — California expungement law. (“The probationer may make the application and change of plea in person or by attorney, or by the probation officer authorized in writing.”)
- See same. (“The order shall state, and the probationer shall be informed, that the order does not relieve him or her of the obligation to disclose the conviction in response to any direct question contained in any questionnaire or application for public office, for licensure by any state or local agency, or for contracting with the California State Lottery.”). See also Garcia-Brower v. Premier Automotive Imports of CA, LLC (Cal. App. 1st Dist. 2020), 269 Cal. Rptr. 3d 856.
- California Business and Professions Code 480 — Acts disqualifying applicant.
- California Penal Code 4852.16 PC — Pardon; certificate as application; issuance; recommendation.
- California Penal Code 4852.03 PC — Period of rehabilitation; determination of period.
- See endnotes 9, 23 and 24 above.
- California Penal Code 4852.17 PC — Report of certificate of rehabilitation or pardon; rights restored by pardon; exceptions. See also California Penal Code 4853 PC — Restoration of rights, privileges and franchises; exceptions.
- How to Apply for a Pardon — State of California, Office of the Governor. (“Absent extraordinary and compelling circumstances, an application will not be considered unless the applicant has been discharged from probation or parole for at least 10 years without further criminal activity during that period. The 10-year rule may be waived in truly exceptional circumstances (for example, factual innocence), if the applicant can demonstrate such circumstances warranting a specific need for the pardon.”)
- See endnote 16, above.
- California Welfare and Institutions Code 781, endnote 17, above.
- See endnote 16, above.
- See same.
- California Penal Code 290.5 PC — Pardon or certificate of rehabilitation; relief from the duty to register.