Driving Under the Influence of Marijuana in California
Vehicle Code 23152(e) VC

Driving under the influence of marijuana is a crime in California under Vehicle Code 23152(e) VC. It is similar to driving under the influence of alcohol under Vehicle Code 23152(a) VC.1

Unlike with alcohol, however, the law does not specify that any particular amount of THC in the bloodstream automatically establishes impairment. This can make the crime difficult to prove.

For you to be found guilty of DUI marijuana, the prosecutor must prove that:

  1. You drove a motor vehicle
  2. Under the influence of marijuana
  3. Because of the marijuana, your mental abilities were so impaired that you were unable to drive with the caution of a sober person, using ordinary care, under similar circumstances.2

Penalties for DUI marijuana

The penalties for DUI of marijuana are the same as the California DUI penalties involving alcohol. Penalties for a first-time DUI of marijuana may include:

Legal defenses to DUI marijuana

Legal defenses to charges of driving under the influence of marijuana include:

  • You weren't driving
  • You didn't use marijuana
  • You used marijuana, but you were no longer high when you drove
  • Your mental and physical abilities weren't significantly impaired
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Our criminal defense attorneys include former prosecutors and cops.  We understand how to defend against California DUI charges successfully.

In order to help you better understand the crime of DUI marijuana in California, our criminal defense attorneys discuss the following, below:

  1. The Legal Definition of DUI marijuana in California
    1. “Driving” a vehicle
    2. “Under the influence” of marijuana
  2. Proving California DUI marijuana
  3. Do I have to agree to a chemical test?
    1. Which chemical test do I have to take?
    2. What if I refuse to take a chemical test?
  4. The problem with chemical tests for marijuana
    1. Blood tests
    2. Urine tests
    3. Oral swabs / saliva tests
  5. The relationship between marijuana use and driving impairment
  6. Penalties for California DUI marijuana
  7. Legal defenses to DUI marijuana
    1. You didn't use marijuana
    2. You used marijuana, but you are no longer high
    3. You used marijuana, but your driving wasn't impaired
    4. Medical marijuana use is not a defense to DUI marijuana
  8. DUI Marijuana and Related Offenses
    1. Unlawful possession of marijuana for personal use
    2. Vehicle Code 23222 VC possession of marijuana while driving
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If after reading this article, you have additional questions, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group.

You may also find helpful information in our related articles on Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol Under Vehicle Code 23152(a) VC; California DUI Penalties, Punishment & Sentencing; Penalties for a First-Time DUI in California; Informal (Summary) Probation in California; Suspension of Your Driver's License for a First-Time California DUI; Common Legal Defenses to California Crimes; California's DUI of Drugs Laws; California's Medical Marijuana Laws; Field Sobriety Tests in DUI Cases; Understanding Probation & Probation Violations in DUI Cases; Legal Definition of a California Misdemeanor; Felony DUI Penalties in California; Health & Safety Code 11357(b) HS California's Possession of Marijuana Law; Legal Definition of an Infraction in California Law; Possessing Marijuana While Driving Vehicle Code 23222(b) VC; Chemical Test Refusals in California DUI Cases; California Law on Concentrated Cannabis; and Transporting Marijuana Under Health & Safety Code 11360 HS.

1. The Legal Definition of DUI Marijuana in California

California Vehicle Code 23152 VC makes it a crime to drive under the influence (DUI) of:

  • alcohol
  • drugs (including marijuana) 4
  • alcohol and drugs combined 5

Let's take a closer look at each of these elements.

1.1 “Driving” a vehicle

This is generally the easiest element for the prosecution to prove.  For purposes of California Vehicle Code 23152(a), the word “drive” carries its usual, everyday meaning.

If the officer didn't see you driving, he/she can't legally arrest you for a DUI. 6

Example: An LAPD officer sees Alfred smoke a joint outside of a bar.  Afterwards, Alfred gets into the driver's side of his car and turns on the ignition.  The cop immediately arrests him for DUI marijuana.  However, since Alfred never actually drove the vehicle, his arrest for DUI is illegal.

1.2 “Under the influence” of marijuana

You are considered to be “under the influence” of marijuana when:

  1. as a result of consuming marijuana
  2. your mental or physical abilities are so impaired
  3. that you can no longer drive a vehicle with the caution of a sober person, using ordinary care, under similar circumstances 7

These “elements of the crime” are issues of fact.  As such, you have the right to have a jury trial to determine whether the prosecutor has proved them beyond a reasonable doubt. 8

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2. Proving DUI of marijuana

Proving DUI of marijuana in California presents serious challenges for a prosecutor.

Chemical Tests

Unlike alcohol, there is no “per se” amount of marijuana in the bloodstream that can be used to establish impairment. 9 Positive test results for blood alcohol content (BAC) are considered reliable; tests for marijuana are not.

Tests for marijuana reveal whether or not there is some marijuana in your system. At present, however, they cannot establish:

  • how much marijuana you consumed, or even
  • how recently you consumed it 10

More importantly, there is no expert consensus as to how much marijuana is sufficient to impair one's ability to drive. 11 (See Section 5, below).

Chemical test results are not necessary, however, to convict you of DUI marijuana. 12 They are just one piece of evidence the prosecutor can use to show you drove impaired. 13 So if you refuse to take a chemical test -- or even if the cops don't ask you to take one -- you can still be charged under Vehicle Code 23152(e) VC.

In addition to chemical test results, evidence of DUI marijuana may include:

  • Your driving pattern
  • Your statements to the police
  • Your physical appearance
  • Your performance on Field Sobriety Tests (FSTs)
  • The presence of marijuana or paraphernalia in your car or on your person

    and/or

  • Evidence that you are addicted to marijuana. 14
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The Field Sobriety Test used in DUI alcohol arrests is one way cops try to determine if you are DUI marijuana.

Most of these elements will be introduced through testimony from the arresting officer.  If drug use is suspected, the officer may also call a “Drug Recognition Expert” (DRE) to the scene. 15

Signs of marijuana use that the officer and/or DRE might look for include:

  • Dilated pupils
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Rapid breathing
  • The odor of marijuana coming from your body
  • Red eyes
  • Dry “cotton” mouth

    and/or

  • Slowed reaction time 16
3. Do I have to agree to a chemical test?

When you drive in California, you give your implied consent to be tested for alcohol and drugs if you are lawfully arrested for DUI. 17

Your criminal defense attorney can fight both the arrest and the test results later.  If your arrest turns out to be unlawful, the test results will be thrown out -- even if they show that you used marijuana.

But even if it was a lawful arrest, there's no need to panic.  As discussed below, a positive chemical test does not, by itself, prove you were under the influence of marijuana.

3.1 Which chemical test do I have to take?

If the officer suspects you of DUI of marijuana or other drugs, you might initially be offered the choice of either a breath or a blood test. 18

However, even if you choose a breath test, you may be required to submit to a blood test as well.  This usually happens after a breath test comes up negative, or low, for alcohol. An officer may legally require a blood test if he/she reasonably believes you have used drugs and a blood test will reveal evidence of it. 19

If blood testing is not available, or you cannot take a blood test because of a medical condition -- such as hemophilia -- a urine test may be taken instead. 20

3.2 What if I refuse to take a chemical test?

When you are first pulled over, the officer may ask you to blow into a hand-held Breathalyzer and/or perform field sobriety tests.  As long as you have not yet been arrested, you may legally decline to take these tests.

Once the officer places you under arrest, however, refusal to take a DUI chemical test will result in penalties in addition to any penalties for DUI.

For a first time DUI, these additional penalties include:

4. The problem with chemical tests for DUI marijuana

There are three basic problems with chemical tests for marijuana:

  • They don't indicate reliably when marijuana was used
  • They don't indicate reliably how much marijuana was used
  • There is no consensus on how much marijuana leads to impaired driving

The primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”).  22 It can produce alterations in motor behavior, perception, cognition, and memory. THC is what makes marijuana users feel “stoned” or “high.” 23

Smoking marijuana produces a very rapid high, with the highest blood concentration of THC occurring very soon upon the marijuana being consumed. 24 Typical marijuana smokers experience a high that lasts approximately two hours. After three to five hours, most behavioral and physiological effects return to their normal levels. 25

Oral consumption of marijuana produces more delayed, but lower, peak THC levels. 26

4.1 Blood tests
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THC is fat-soluble.  This means that some of it gets stored in the body's fatty tissues.  As a result, it can be detected by chemical tests well after someone who has used it is no longer high. 27

In people who use marijuana only occasionally, THC is detectible in the blood for up to 12 hours after consumption.  In chronic marijuana users, it can show up in the blood for as long as two days.  As a result, “false positives” for marijuana impairment are common, even when people are no longer high. 28

Example: Alice smokes marijuana three or four times a week. One day she runs a stop sign and is pulled over. The officer smells pot on Alice's clothes and arrests her for DUI marijuana.

Ironically, this happens on a day when Alice has not smoked any pot and isn't high. But because she is a habitual user, however, her blood test turns up positive for THC.

4.2 Urine tests
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Urine tests for marijuana are even less reliable than blood tests.  They do not check directly for the presence of THC, but instead for inactive metabolites, such as THC carboxylic acid (THC-COOH). 29

These inactive metabolites can be detected in urine long after marijuana has ceased to have any impairing effects.  By some estimates, they can be detected for up to four weeks in chronic users. 30

Moreover, since these substances do not themselves cause impairment, a positive urine test does not indicate that one was “under the influence” of marijuana. 31 It merely indicates that cannabis has been consumed at some point in the fairly recent past.

Newer strains of high CBD/low THC marijuana may be particularly susceptible to false positives. 32 CBD – cannibidiol – is a non-psychoactive substance in marijuana. 33 High CBD cannabis is often used as medicinal marijuana by people who don't want to feel high. 34

Example: Adam suffers from a blood-clotting disorder and frequent migraines.  He smokes high-CBD marijuana every evening after work to help him manage his headache pain. 35 He doesn't smoke on weekends.

One Monday morning, on the way to work, Adam accidentally runs a red light. When a cop pulls him over, he smells marijuana on Adam's clothes.  A breathalyzer test proves negative for alcohol, and the cop orders Adam to take a chemical blood test.

Because Adam has a clotting disorder, he is permitted to take a urine test instead of a blood test.  Even though Adam hasn't smoked in two-and-a-half days, and he smokes a strain low in THC, he tests positive for marijuana.

4.3 Oral swabs / saliva tests
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Studies have shown that saliva sampling is non-invasive, and that it can narrow down time of use to a matter of hours. 36 However, the admissibility of oral swabs for marijuana has not yet been ruled on by a California court.

Some California counties – including Los Angeles, Bakersfield, Sacramento and Fullerton – have begun using these oral swabs on a test basis. 37 At present, however, an oral swab is a voluntary pre-arrest test, like a Breathalyzer or a field sobriety test. 38

This may soon change, however.  The Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office has said it is hoping to test the legality of saliva tests as proof of DUI in court. 39

5. The relationship between marijuana use and driving impairment
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Studies on marijuana use and driving impairment are inconclusive and contradictory. While most suggest that marijuana use increases the risk of a car crash, others suggest that it does not. 40

However, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration advises against drawing conclusions about impairment based on THC blood concentration. 41

5.1 How does driving stoned compare with drunk driving?

Even the studies that show a link between marijuana use and accidents estimate that driving high merely doubles your risk of getting into an accident.  By way of contrast, driving drunk can increase the risk of an accident up to 20 times for younger drivers. 42

In addition, stoned drivers are more aware than drunk ones of being intoxicated.  As a result, they tend to underestimate their ability to drive, and to drive more slowly than normal.  Drunk drivers, on the other hand, typically overestimate their abilities and drive faster. 43

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Rank order of test sensitivity to effects of cannabis and alcohol. 44
6. Penalties for California DUI of marijuana
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Absent a serious accident, DUI of marijuana is usually charged as a California misdemeanor.  The penalties are the same as for DUI of alcohol. 45

For a first offense, they can include:

  • Informal probation for three (3) to five (5) years
  • A minimum of ninety-six (96) hours, and a maximum of six (6) months, in county jail
  • A minimum fine of three hundred ninety dollars ($390), up to a maximum fine of one thousand dollars ($1000)
  • Suspension of your driver's license for six (6) months 46

But if you

  • cause a death or injury to a third party
  • have 3 prior DUI or wet reckless convictions within the last 10 years

you may be charged with felony DUI marijuana. 47 In that case you face California felony DUI penalties including:

  • A California state prison sentence 

    and/or

  • A suspension of your driver's license for one (1) year 48
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7. Legal defenses to DUI of marijuana

Defenses to a California DUI for alcohol apply to DUI marijuana as well.  These include unlawful arrest, and failure to conduct a chemical test in accordance with California Title 17 regulations. 49

But a few defenses are special to charges of DUI marijuana (or driving under the combined influence of marijuana and alcohol). These include:

7.1 You didn't use marijuana

Because marijuana's metabolite is fairly unique, it is unlikely that if you didn't use it you will test positive on a chemical test. 50

However, it is not impossible, especially if you use proton pump inhibitors (such as Protonix) for gastrointestinal reflux disease. 51

This is why it is important to tell your criminal defense attorney if you use any supplements or drugs -- whether prescription, over-the-counter, or illegal.

7.2 You used marijuana, but you are no longer high

Chemical tests can show that you used marijuana, but not how long ago you used it.  Casual users may test positive for marijuana for up to 12 hours after they smoked it.  Frequent users may have positive blood tests even if it has been days since they last smoked or consumed pot. 52

Urine tests reveal the presence of THC metabolites for even longer –up to four weeks in the case of chronic users.

This is why prosecutors in DUI marijuana cases can't rely on chemical tests as “smoking guns.” A good DUI defense lawyer will make this clear to the prosecutor and -- if the case goes to trial -- to the judge or jury.

Example: Pete uses marijuana to help with chronic insomnia.  On his way home late one night, he is pulled over for weaving between lanes on the freeway. The California Highway Patrol officer who pulls him over notes that Pete has bloodshot eyes and seems tense. Pete fails a field sobriety test, and a preliminary breath test is negative for alcohol.

The officer arrests Pete for DUI drugs instead. A blood test shows the presence of THC in Pete's blood. He is charged with driving under the influence of marijuana.

However, when Pete was arrested, it had been a full day since he had last smoked marijuana.  He failed the FST not because he was high, but because he was tired.

Pete and his attorney are familiar with the studies showing that Pete could test positive for THC even though he was no longer under the effects of marijuana.  By using these studies -- along with evidence of Pete's customary marijuana use -- they are able to convince the prosecutor to dismiss the DUI marijuana charges.

7.3 You used marijuana, but your driving wasn't impaired

Even if the prosecutor can prove that you recently used marijuana, he/she must prove that your driving was actually impaired. 53

A positive marijuana test alone doesn't prove you were too high to drive safely.  As Santa Ana criminal and DUI defense lawyer John Murray 54 points out:

“No one agrees exactly how much THC in your blood makes you ‘impaired.' You are only guilty of DUI marijuana if the prosecutor can prove that your pot use affected your ability to drive safely -- and they can't always do that.”

Even the “experts” don't agree as to what impact marijuana has on driving.A DUI defense attorney who understands the current data can often successfully argue that a stoned driver is not necessarily an impaired one under California law.

7.4 Medical marijuana use is not a defense to DUI marijuana

It is not a defense to DUI drug charges that you had the legal right to use marijuana under California's medical marijuana laws. 55

California Vehicle Code 23152(e) applies to all drugs, not just illegal ones.  If a drug impairs your driving, it doesn't matter whether it prescription or it was medically necessary.  If your ability to drive safely is impaired by marijuana, you must not drive.

It is also not a defense to DUI marijuana charges that your impairment caused in part by something other than marijuana -- for example, because you were tired. 56 If your impairment resulted even partially from the use of marijuana, you can be found guilty under 23152(e) VC.

8. DUI Marijuana and Related Offenses

If you are arrested for DUI marijuana under Vehicle Code 23152(e) VC, you may find yourself facing additional charges as well. These might include:

8.1 Unlawful possession of marijuana for personal use
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If an officer finds marijuana on your person or in your car, you may face charges under Health & Safety Code 11357(B) HS, California's possession of marijuana law.

Possession of no more than one (1) ounce of marijuana (other than concentrated cannabis) is an infraction, punishable by a fine of up to one hundred dollars ($100). 57

Possession of more than one (1) ounce is a misdemeanor. Potential penalties include up to six (6) months in county jail and up to five hundred dollars ($500) in fines. 58

Possession of concentrated cannabis is a "wobbler" offense.  If charged as a misdemeanor, the penalties can include up to one (1) year in county jail and/or a five hundred dollar ($500) fine. 59 As a felony, the penalty is 16 months, or two or three years in county jail. 60

8.2 Vehicle Code 23222 VC possession of marijuana while driving

Possession of marijuana while driving (Vehicle Code 23222 VC) is also a crime. 61

As long as you possess no more than one (1) ounce of marijuana (other than concentrated cannabis), possession while driving is an infraction, with a maximum fine of one hundred dollars ($100). 62

But if you drive in possession of more than one (1) ounce of marijuana, or with concentrated cannabis (hashish), you may be charged with the more serious crime of transporting marijuana under Health & Safety Code 11360 HS.

Call Us for Help…

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If you or loved one is charged with DUI or other marijuana charges, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group. We can provide a free consultation in office or by phone.

We have local offices in Los Angeles, the San Fernando Valley, Pasadena, Long Beach, Orange County, Ventura, San Bernardino, Rancho Cucamonga, Riverside, San Diego, Sacramento, Oakland, San Francisco, San Jose and throughout California.

To learn about DUI with marijuana in Nevada, please visit our page on DUI with marijuana in Nevada.

Legal References:



1 Vehicle Code 23152(e) VC – Driving under influence; blood alcohol percentage; presumptions [DUI marijuana]. (“(e) It is unlawful for a person who is under the influence of any drug [including marijuana] to drive a vehicle.”)

See also Vehicle Code 23152(a) VC. (“(a) It is unlawful for a person who is under the influence of any alcoholic beverage to drive a vehicle.”)

2 Judicial Council of California Criminal Jury Instructions (“CALCRIM”) 2100 – Driving Under the Influence [of Marijuana]. (“A person is under the influence if, as a result of (drinking [or consuming] an alcoholic beverage/ [and/or] taking a drug), his or her mental or physical abilities are so impaired that he or she is no longer able to drive a vehicle with the caution of a sober person, using ordinary care, under similar circumstances.”)

See also People v. Enriquez (1996) 42 Cal.App.4th 661, 49 Cal.Rptr.2d 710 (“To be 'under the influence' within the meaning of the Vehicle Code, the ... drug(s) must have so far affected the nervous system, the brain, or muscles as to impair to an appreciable degree the ability to operate a vehicle in a manner like that of an ordinarily prudent and cautious person in full possession of his faculties.”).

3 Vehicle Code 23536 VC – Conviction of first violation of § 23152 [DUI marijuana]; punishment. (“(a) If a person is convicted of a first violation of Section 23152, that person shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for not less than 96 hours, at least 48 hours of which shall be continuous, nor more than six months, and by a fine of not less than three hundred ninety dollars ($390), nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000). . . . (c) The person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle shall be suspended by the department under paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 13352 or Section 13352.1. The court shall require the person to surrender the driver's license to the court in accordance with Section 13550.”)

4 CALCRIM 2110  [A drug is a substance or combination of substances, other than alcohol,that could so affect the nervous system, brain, or muscles of a person that it would appreciably impair his or her ability to drive as an ordinarily cautious person, in full possession of his or her faculties and using reasonable care, would drive under similar circumstances.]

5 Vehicle Code 23152 (a) and (e), endnote 1, above.

See also Vehicle Code 23152(f). It is unlawful for a person who is under the combined influence of any alcoholic beverage and drug to drive a vehicle.

6 Mercer v. Department of Motor Vehicles (1991) 53 Cal.3d 753, 280 Cal.Rptr. 745.

7 CALCRIM 2100 – Driving Under the Influence of Marijuana. To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must prove that: 1 The defendant drove a vehicle; AND 2 When (he/she) drove, the defendant was under the influence of (an alcoholic beverage/ [or] a drug) [or under the combined influence of an alcoholic beverage and a drug].

8 People v. McGinnis (1953) 123 Cal.App.2d Supp. 945, 267 P.2d 458 (holding that the guilt of an accused may be established by circumstantial as well as by direct evidence, and that the right to draw proper inferences from the evidence is a function of the jury.).

9 Like DUI of drugs, DUI of alcohol under Vehicle Code 23152(a) requires proof that your ability to drive safely was actually impaired due to the consumption of alcohol.  However, under Vehicle Code 23152(b) VC, you are deemed intoxicated as a matter of law if you have a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of .08 or greater. This is known as a per se DUI charge and it does not require proof that you were actually too impaired to drive safely.

10 Maggie Koerth-Baker, Driving Under the Influence, of Marijuana , NYTimes.com, Feb. 17, 2014.

11 See, e.g., National Public Radio, No Easy Answers For DUI Concerns As Marijuana Gains Support, February 23, 2014.

12 People v. Macknic (1967) 257 Cal.App.2d 370, 64 Cal.Rptr. 833 (holding that detailed testimony by an expert as to the defendant's observable physical and mental reactive state was sufficient to prove that defendant was “under the influence” of a narcotic drug.).

The court in Macknic also held that the police were under no duty to offer the defendant a chemical test.  In that the event that they do not do so, it is up to the defendant to request one if he/she wants to obtain exculpatory evidence.  It is “only when he is denied an opportunity, reasonable under the circumstances, to procure a timely sample of his blood that he can properly claim a denial of due process.”

13 People v. McGinnis, endnote 8.

14 See e.g., People v. Weathington (1991) 231 Cal.App.3d 69, 282 Cal.Rptr. 170 (“If the issue is whether the ability of the driver to operate his vehicle is impaired, the manner in which the vehicle is driven is evidence which tends to prove or disprove that fact.”).

In Weathington, the court found that there was substantial evidence to convict the defendant of driving impaired due to alcohol on the basis of not only a chemical test revealing a high BAC, but due to his manner of driving, his slurred speech, his swaying, staggering walk, and statements regarding his consumption of alcohol.

15 See Marijuana and DUI: What Californians Need to Know , SFGate.com, Jan. 14, 2014.

16Marijuana Use and Its Effects , WebMD.

17 Vehicle Code 23612(a)(1)(B): A person who drives a motor vehicle is deemed to have given his or her consent to chemical testing of his or her blood for the purpose of determining the drug content of his or her blood, if lawfully arrested for an offense allegedly committed in violation of Section 23140, 23152, or 23153. If a blood test is unavailable, the person shall be deemed to have given his or her consent to chemical testing of his or her urine and shall submit to a urine test.

18 Vehicle Code 23612(a)(2)(B): If the person is lawfully arrested for driving under the influence of any drug or the combined influence of an alcoholic beverage and any drug, the person has the choice of whether the test shall be of his or her blood or breath, and the officer shall advise the person that he or she has that choice.

19 Vehicle Code 23612(a)(2)(C) – “A person who chooses to submit to a breath test may also be requested to submit to a blood test if the officer has reasonable cause to believe that the person was driving under the influence of a drug or the combined influence of an alcoholic beverage and a drug and if the officer has a clear indication that a blood test will reveal evidence of the person being under the influence. The officer shall state in his or her report the facts upon which that belief and that clear indication are based. The officer shall advise the person that he or she is required to submit to an additional test. The person shall submit to and complete a blood test. If the person arrested is incapable of completing the blood test, the person shall submit to and complete a urine test.”

20 Same

21 See Vehicle Code 13353 VC

22 Jason C. Laberge and Nicholas J. War, Research Note: Cannabis and Driving — Research Needs and Issues for Transportation Policy, The Journal of Drug Issues (2004).

23 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Drug and Human Performance Fact Sheet.

24 Same.

25 Same.  The report notes that some investigators have demonstrated residual effects in specific behaviors -- such as complex divided attention tasks – for up to 24 hours.

26 Laberge and War, endnote 22.

27 Same

28 Same

29 Same

30 Mateus M. Bergamaschi  and José Alexandre S. Crippa, Why should cannabis be considered doping in sports? May 15, 20013

31 NORML, Drug Testing Tips.

32Chemicals in marijuana 'protect nervous system' against MS, Medical News Today, October 3, 2013.

33 See, e.g., A.J. Hampson, M. Grimaldi, J. Axelrod and D. Wink, Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 95, pp. 8268–8273, July 1998 (“Like THC, cannabidiol is a natural component of the marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa, although unlike THC, cannabidiol does not activate cannabinoid receptors and so is devoid of psychoactive effects.”)

34 Medical News Today, endnote 32.

35 E.G. Russo, Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions? Neuro Endocrinol Lett., Feb.-April 2004.

36 Laberge and War, endnote 22.

37 Erika Aguilar, LA DUI checkpoints will now test for drugs with oral swab kits (video), Southern California Public Radio, December 27, 2013.

38 See LAPD sets up drug detection swab test at checkpoints, Aljazeera America, December 30, 2013

39 See, e.g., The Green Rush Begins: Investors Get In On Pot's Ground Floor, National Public Radio, February 16, 2014.

40 The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that people who use marijuana generally have more trouble than other drivers staying in their lanes, doing multiple tasks at once, and maintaining concentration on long, monotonous drives. National Public Radio, endnote 11.

See also: Laberge and War, endnote 22; and Harry Klonoff, Marijuana and Driving in Real-Life Situations, Science Vol. 186, October 25, 1974.

41 See National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, endnote 23. (“It is difficult to establish a relationship between a person's THC blood or plasma concentration and performance impairing effects… [and] currently impossible to predict specific effects based on THC-COOH concentrations.”).

Six states have set legal limits for THC concentration in the blood.  California is not, however, one of them. See Koerth-Baker, endnote 10.

42 Koerth-Baker, endnote 10.

43 Same

44 Laberge and Ward, endnote 22.

45 See, e.g., Vehicle Code 23536 VC – Conviction of first violation of § 23152 [DUI marijuana]; punishment, endnote 3.

46 Same

47 Vehicle Code 23153 VC …(e) It is unlawful for a person, while under the influence of any drug, to drive a vehicle and concurrently do any act forbidden by law, or neglect any duty imposed by law in driving the vehicle, which act or neglect proximately causes bodily injury to any person other than the driver.

(f) It is unlawful for a person, while under the combined influence of any alcoholic beverage and drug, to drive a vehicle and concurrently do any act forbidden by law, or neglect any duty imposed by law in driving the vehicle, which act or neglect proximately causes bodily injury to any person other than the driver…

48 Vehicle Code 23554 VC.  If any person is convicted of a first violation of Section 23153, that person shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison, or in a county jail for not less than 90 days nor more than one year, and by a fine of not less than three hundred ninety dollars ($390) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000). The person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle shall be suspended by the Department of Motor Vehicles pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 13352. The court shall require the person to surrender the driver's license to the court in accordance with Section 13550.

49 See California Code of Regulations, Title 17 (re DUI) 1219.1. Blood Collection and Retention, and 1219.2. Urine Collection and Retention.

50 See e.g., The ABCs of Marijuana and Drug Testing.

51 Quest Diagnostics claims the use of Protonix should not result in a confirmed positive drug test for marijuana or its metabolite. See Protonix and Marijuana Drug Screens, Quest Diagnostics Solutions, March 17, 2010.

However, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals’ prescribing information for Protonix carries the following warning:

“7.5 False Positive Urine Tests for THC

There have been reports of false positive urine screening tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors. An alternative confirmatory method should be considered to verify positive results.”

52 NHTSA, endnote 23.

53 See e.g., People v. Torres (2009)173 Cal.App.4th 977, 93 Cal.Rptr.3d 303 (holding that the potential of methamphetamine to impair driving was insufficient to convict defendant of DUI drugs absent expert evidence showing that his drug use actually affected his driving ability [emphasis added]).

54 Santa Ana criminal and DUI defense lawyer John Murray is one of Southern California's leading experts on DUI and DUI marijuana criminal defense. He has considerable expertise in drunk and impaired driving law and a stellar track record of success at DMV hearing locations throughout southern California, including those in the City of Commerce, Covina, El Segundo, Oxnard, San Bernardino, and Van Nuys.

55 CALCRIM 2100. (“[It is not a defense that the defendant was legally entitled to use the drug.]”)

56 Same. “[If the defendant was under the influence of (an alcoholic beverage/ [and/or] a drug), then it is not a defense that something else also impaired (his/her) ability to drive.]”)

57 Health and Safety Code 11357(b): Except as authorized by law, every person who possesses not more than 28.5 grams of marijuana, other than concentrated cannabis, is guilty of an infraction punishable by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars ($100).

58 Health and  Safety Code 11357(c): Except as authorized by law, every person who possesses more than 28.5 grams of marijuana, other than concentrated cannabis, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not more than six months or by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500), or by both such fine and imprisonment.

59 Health and Safety Code 11357(a): Except as authorized by law, every person who possesses  any concentrated cannabis shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not more than one year or by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500), or by both such fine and imprisonment, or shall be punished by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code.

60 Penal Code 1170(h)(1). Except as provided in paragraph (3), a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision where the term is not specified in the underlying offense shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment in a county jail for 16 months, or two or three years.

61 Vehicle Code 23222(b): Except as authorized by law, every person who possesses, while driving a motor vehicle upon a highway or on lands, as described in subdivision (b) of Section 23220, not more than one avoirdupois ounce of marijuana, other than concentrated cannabis as defined by Section 11006.5 of the Health and Safety Code, is guilty of an infraction punishable by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars ($100).

62 Same

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