California Prescription Fraud & "Doctor Shopping" Laws
Health & Safety Code 11173 & 11153 HS

There are two major forms of the crime of “prescription fraud” in California.

The first is prescription fraud committed by patients (also sometimes known as “doctor shopping”), described in California Health & Safety Code 11173 HS.1

This occurs when someone obtains or attempts to obtain a prescription for controlled substances—including painkillers such as hydrocodone (“Vicodin”)—through:

  1. Fraud, deceit, misrepresentation, or subterfuge; or
  2. The concealment of a material fact.2

The second form of prescription drug fraud—covered in California Health & Safety Code 11153 HS—is committed by doctors and other medical professionals authorized to write prescriptions.3

Medical professionals commit prescription fraud when they write prescriptions for controlled substances that are not issued for legitimate medical purposes, and/or are not issued in the usual course of their professional practice.

Pdfraud_rx
Prescription fraud can be committed by both patients and doctors.

Examples

Here are some examples of people who could be prosecuted for prescription fraud or doctor shopping in California:

  • A man who is addicted to Vicodin has his girlfriend see a doctor and pretend to be suffering from chronic back pain in order to get a prescription for Vicodin—which she then gives to him.
  • An elderly woman becomes addicted to codeine while recovering from surgery; she then sees several doctors at once and obtains prescriptions for more codeine from all of them.
  • A doctor develops a reputation among prescription drug addicts for writing prescriptions “no questions asked,” for a flat fee per prescription.

Penalties

Prescription fraud/doctor shopping—whether it is committed by a patient or a medical professional—is a wobbler in California law.4

This means that it may be charged as either a California misdemeanor or a felony, at the prosecutor's discretion.5

Misdemeanor prescription fraud is punishable by up to one (1) year in county jail. Felony prescription fraud carries a potential jail sentence of sixteen (16) months, two (2) years or three (3) years.6

Plus, a medical professional convicted of prescription fraud is likely to lose his/her professional license.

Doctor-rx
A doctor who is convicted of HS 11153 prescription fraud will likely lose his/her medical license.

Legal defenses

Prescription fraud/doctor shopping charges can devastate your life. And these charges are often brought against people who are already suffering from medical problems—and sometimes issues with drug dependence as well.

But just being charged doesn't mean you will be convicted. We have helped our clients fight HS 11173 or 11153 charges with the following legal defenses:

  • You did not use fraud or deceit to obtain a prescription (for HS 11173 charges);
  • You did not knowingly write a prescription for a non-legitimate purpose (for HS 11153 charges); and/or
  • The legal defense of entrapment.

In order to help you better understand the California crime of prescription fraud, our California criminal defense attorneys will address the following:

1. The Legal Definition of Prescription Fraud

1.1. Health & Safety Code 11173 prescription fraud/doctor shopping
1.2. Health & Safety Code 11153 prescription fraud by medical professionals

2. Penalties for California Prescription Fraud

2.1. Prescription fraud and professional discipline in California

3. Legal Defenses to Charges of Prescription Fraud

4. HS 11173/11153 and Related Offenses

4.1. Forging or altering a prescription HS 11368
4.2. Possession of a controlled substance HS 11350
4.3. Sale or transportation of a controlled substance HS 11352

If, after reading this article, you would like more information, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group.

1. The Legal Definition of Prescription Fraud

There are two major forms of California prescription fraud: California Health & Safety Code 11173 prescription fraud by patients, and California Health & Safety 11153 prescription fraud by doctors, nurses and other professionals.

1.1. Health & Safety Code 11173 prescription fraud/doctor shopping

The legal definition of prescription fraud/doctor shopping committed by patients is as follows:

  1. You either obtained, attempted to obtain, procured the administration or prescription of, or attempted to procure the administration or prescription of, a controlled substance; and
  2. You did so either by fraud, deceit, misrepresentation or subterfuge, OR by the concealment of a material fact.7

Let's take a better look at these “elements of the crime” in order to better understand the legal definition of HS 11173 prescription fraud.

Pdfraud_pills
Health & Safety Code 11173 covers prescription fraud/doctor shopping by patients.

Obtain or procure the administration or prescription of

Health & Safety Code 11173 HS makes it a crime to do any of the following:

  • Obtain or attempt to obtain a controlled substance;
  • Procure or attempt to procure the administration of a controlled substance; or
  • Procure or attempt to procure the prescription of a controlled substance.8

This means that you can technically commit this form of prescription fraud even if no prescription is actually involved.

Example: Todd is addicted to the powerful painkiller Dilaudid (hydromorphone).

He frequently goes to his local emergency room claiming that he suffers from chronic severe back pain due to an old work injury—which is not true—so that the staff will administer him this drug through an IV at the hospital.

Todd even sometimes brings fake identification to the ER and gives the staff false names, since he is concerned that they will catch on and stop giving him the drug.

Todd is guilty of prescription fraud for procuring the administration of a controlled substance. (He may also be charged with Penal Code 470b possession of a fake ID.)

This also means that you can be convicted of prescription fraud even if you never actually obtain a drug or a prescription for a drug. All that's required is that you attempt to obtain a drug or prescription.9

Example: Rebecca is a former heroin addict who gives up drugs when she becomes pregnant.

But then her baby is delivered by Cesarean section, and her recovery is especially painful. She relies on Vicodin to get through the recovery.

Rebecca finds herself becoming addicted to Vicodin. She visits her doctor and falsely claims to be experiencing continuing pain even after her pain has actually ended. But the doctor is skeptical and refuses to write her a prescription.

Rebecca may be guilty of prescription fraud for attempting to get a prescription through deceit—even though she didn't succeed.

A controlled substance

Pdfraud_medbottles
Many different prescription drugs count as "controlled substances" for purposes of California's prescription drug fraud laws.

A “controlled substance” means any substance listed on the five classification schedules of federal and California drug laws.10

Some prescription drugs that are often involved in prescription fraud cases include:

  • Hydrocodone (Vicodin);
  • Morphine;
  • Oxycodone;
  • Xanax;
  • Valium;
  • Adderall; and
  • Ritalin.

By fraud

Health & Safety Code 11173 HS covers attempts to obtain prescriptions or prescription drugs by any of the following:

  1. Fraud;
  2. Deceit;
  3. Misrepresentation;
  4. Subterfuge; OR
  5. Concealment of a material fact.11

“Fraud” is the act of knowingly misrepresenting the truth, or concealing a material fact, in order to get another person to act in a way that harms his/her interests.12

In other words, you commit prescription fraud when you lie OR conceal a material fact in order to obtain prescription medication

Example: Luke is seeing a number of different doctors after a car accident that left him with multiple injuries. He has received a prescription for oxycodone to treat his pain from one of his doctors.

Luke discovers that he can make good money selling his oxycodone to recreational drug users So he goes to several other doctors for his pain (which is real) and gets each of them to prescribe him oxycodone. He keeps some for himself and sells the rest.

Luke did not actually lie to these doctors—he really does need the oxycodone for his pain. But he concealed the fact that he was “doctor shopping” to get multiple prescriptions. So he is guilty of prescription fraud.

Pdfraud_handwithpills
You commit prescription fraud by lying or concealing facts in order to obtain prescription drugs.

You can also commit prescription fraud by giving a false name or a false address in connection with prescriptions for a controlled substance.13

1.2. Health & Safety Code 11153 prescription fraud by medical professionals

California Health & Safety Code 11153 covers the crime of prescription fraud when it is committed by doctors, nurse practitioners, and other medical professionals.

The legal definition of this form of prescription fraud is knowingly issuing a prescription that is:

  1. Not for a legitimate medical purpose; and/or
  2. Outside the usual course of the practitioner's professional practice.14

This form of prescription fraud can be committed by any medical professional authorized to issue a prescription—including:

  • Doctors;
  • Dentists;
  • Nurse practitioners; and
  • Psychiatrists.

Example: Students at competitive high schools in wealthy neighborhoods regularly take drugs like Adderall and Ritalin to help them focus while studying—even though most of these students don't have any psychiatric condition or learning disability that would warrant a prescription for those drugs.

Klaus is a psychiatrist with an office in one of these wealthy neighborhoods. He regularly sees these students for brief consultations for a high fee.

If students tell them they are stressed out about schoolwork, Klaus will write them a prescription, no questions asked. Klaus is well aware that his patients are just using these drugs as a study aid and not to treat a disease.

Klaus is guilty of HS 11153 prescription fraud by a medical practitioner for writing prescriptions that are not for legitimate medical purposes.

Pdfraud_drwithprescription
Prescription fraud by medical professionals is covered under Health & Safety Code 11153.

Note that a medical professional can only commit prescription fraud if s/he acts knowingly. If s/he writes a prescription in good faith, believing that it is for a legitimate medical purpose, then s/he is not guilty of Health & Safety Code 11153.15

The problem of “reckless prescribing” by physicians and other medical professionals has gotten a lot of attention in the media over the last few years.16 California law enforcement has taken notice of this—and is working to combat the problem through more aggressive enforcement of prescription fraud laws against doctors and nurses.

2. Penalties for California Prescription Fraud

California prescription fraud—under both Health & Safety Code 11173 and Health & Safety Code 11153—is what is known as a “wobbler” offense.17

This means that the prosecutor may choose to charge it as EITHER a misdemeanor or a felony.18 Prosecutors usually base this decision on:

  1. The exact nature of the allegations; and
  2. The defendant's criminal history.

Misdemeanor prescription fraud/”doctor shopping” carries the following potential penalties:

Pdfraud_rxabuse
Prescription fraud is not eligible for drug diversion, even though many people convicted of it have addictions and could benefit from treatment.

Prescription fraud as a felony carries the following potential penalties:

Plus, California prescription drug fraud laws are not covered by California's drug diversion program or California Proposition 36. This means that these programs—which provide for court-supervised drug treatment instead of a criminal sentence—are not available to people convicted of doctor shopping.21

2.1. Prescription fraud and professional discipline in California

A California doctor charged with prescription fraud naturally needs to be concerned about doctor discipline and possible medical license suspension.

Any criminal conviction for an offense that is “substantially related” to the qualifications, functions, or duties of a physician can trigger professional discipline of doctors in California.22 Prescription fraud almost certainly will be deemed to fall into this category.

The worst case scenario for doctor discipline for HS 11153 prescription fraud is suspension or revocation of your medical license by the Medical Board of California.

Nurses can also face nurse discipline and license revocation (in some cases) as a result of a prescription fraud conviction.23

3. Legal Defenses to Charges of Prescription Fraud

Pdfraud_rxaddiction
The human stories behind prescription fraud cases are often extremely tragic.

According to San Jose criminal defense attorney Reve Bautista24:

“Prescription drug fraud cases are some of the most heartbreaking cases I see as a criminal defense lawyer. Very often the defendants are not your typical lawbreakers. Instead they're people who suffer from real pain and may have become addicted to pills in the first place because of a doctor's negligence.”

But there is help available. If you or a loved one is accused of prescription fraud, one of the following legal defenses may be the ticket to getting the charges reduced or dismissed.

You did not use fraud or deceit to obtain a prescription

It could well be that you have a problem with abuse of prescription drugs. You may have been obtaining these drugs both to treat pain or another medical condition and to feed the addiction.

But unless you actually lied to—or concealed a material fact from—your doctor or nurse practitioner, you did not commit prescription fraud. It is quite possible that s/he wrote you the prescription quickly or automatically, without asking many questions.

Unless the prosecutor can prove that you actually behaved in a fraudulent or deceptive fashion, you are not guilty under Health & Safety Code 11173.

You did not knowingly prescribe a controlled substance for a non-legitimate purpose

On the flip side, a patient may have obtained a prescription for a controlled substance that turned out not to serve a legitimate medical purpose—but that does not mean that the practitioner who wrote the prescription committed Health & Safety Code 11153 prescription fraud.

Law_20books_20gavel
An experienced criminal defense lawyer understands the most effective legal defenses to prescription fraud charges.

HS 11153 requires that a medical professional knowingly write a prescription that does not serve any legitimate medical purpose.25 But in many cases the doctor wrote the prescription out of carelessness or because of misrepresentation by the patient.

In the current rush to crack down on “reckless prescribers,” many doctors and other medical professionals whose specialty involves patients with chronic pain are being charged with prescription fraud for mere mistakes. But mistakes—even serious ones—are not enough to make one criminally liable.

You were entrapped

“Entrapment” occurs when a law enforcement officer behaves in an overbearing way—and as a result a defendant engages in behavior s/he otherwise would not have.26

Entrapment can occur when police officers conducting undercover “sting” operations talk you into doing something through:

  • Pressure;
  • Harassment;
  • Fraud;
  • Flattery; or
  • Threats.27

While such cases are probably rare, entrapment could be a viable legal defense in certain cases of prescription fraud by a medical practitioner.

For example, it could be the case that an undercover police officer offered a ridiculously high fee to a doctor or nurse to write an unnecessary prescription. Perhaps the doctor or nurse was having financial troubles, and the size of the offer was enough to induce him/her to do something s/he would not otherwise ever have done.

4. HS 11173/11153 and Related Offenses

California crimes that are often charged instead of or along with prescription fraud include:

4.1. Forging or altering a prescription HS 11368
Pdfraud_prescriptionforgery
Forgery of a prescription is often charged along with HS 11153 or 11173.

Forgery or alteration of a prescription Health & Safety Code 11368 HS occurs when someone:

  • Forges or alters a prescription for a narcotic drug;
  • Uses a prescription with a forged signature to obtain or try to obtain a narcotic drug; or
  • Possesses narcotic drugs that were obtained with a forged prescription.28

It is not uncommon for people with prescription drug addictions to be charged with both HS 11173 and HS 11368.

Forging or altering a prescription is a wobbler. The misdemeanor sentence is at least six (6) months and up to one (1) year in county jail. The felony sentence is sixteen (16) months, two (2) years or three (3) years in state prison.29

4.2. Possession of a controlled substance HS 11350

Let's say you are accused of lying to obtain a prescription for a controlled substance—and then are found with the drug in your possession.

If you are initially charged with prescription fraud, you and your criminal defense attorney may want to try to get the charges reduced to Health & Safety Code 11350 HS possession of a controlled substance.

“Simple possession” can be a preferable charge for two reasons. First, it is only a misdemeanor in most cases, punishable by up to one (1) year in county jail.30

Second, unlike prescription fraud, possession of a controlled substance is an offense eligible for deferred entry of judgment (drug diversion) or Proposition 36 drug treatment in lieu of a jail sentence.31

4.3. Sale or transportation of a controlled substance HS 11352

It is also common for defendants to be charged with both prescription drug fraud and sale or transportation of a controlled substance under Health & Safety Code 11352 HS.

This might happen if, for example, you are accused of fraudulently obtaining prescription drugs and then re-selling them for a profit.

Sale or transportation of a controlled substance is a felony in all cases. The potential sentence ranges from three (3) to nine (9) years.32

Call us for help…

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For questions about the crime of prescription drug fraud/doctor shopping in California, or to discuss your case confidentially with one of our California criminal defense attorneys, do not hesitate to contact us at Shouse Law Group.

We have local criminal law offices in and around Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura, San Jose, Oakland, the San Francisco Bay area, and several nearby cities.

For more information on doctor shopping and prescription fraud in Nevada law, please see our page on doctor shopping and prescription fraud in Nevada law.

You may also find helpful information in our related articles on California Drug Laws Involving Hydrocodone (“Vicodin”); California Criminal Fraud Laws; Illegally Possessing or Selling Codeine in California; Legal Definition of a Wobbler in California Law; Legal Definition of a California Misdemeanor; Legal Definition of a California Felony; Arrests/Convictions and Loss of Professional Licenses in California; Common Legal Defenses to California Crimes; The Legal Defense of Entrapment; Penal Code 470b Possession of a Fake ID; Attempted Crimes in California Criminal Law; California Drug Laws Involving Heroin; California Drug Laws; Misdemeanor (Summary) Probation in California; Felony (Formal) Probation in California; California's Realignment Program AB 109; California's Drug Diversion Program; California Proposition 36; Criminal Convictions and Doctor Discipline; Nurse Discipline and License Revocation; Forgery or Alteration of a Prescription Health & Safety Code 11368 HS; Health & Safety Code 11350 HS Possession of a Controlled Substance; and Sale or Transportation of a Controlled Substance Under Health & Safety Code 11352 HS.

Additional Resources

California Prescription Drug Monitoring Program – allows medical practitioners to access their patients' controlled substance history.

Legal References:


1 Health & Safety Code 11173 HS – Fraud, deceit, misrepresentation [form of California prescription fraud]. (“(a) No person shall obtain or attempt to obtain controlled substances, or procure or attempt to procure the administration of or prescription for controlled substances, (1) by fraud, deceit, misrepresentation, or subterfuge; or (2) by the concealment of a material fact. (b) No person shall make a false statement in any prescription, order, report, or record, required by this division. (c) No person shall, for the purpose of obtaining controlled substances, falsely assume the title of, or represent himself to be, a manufacturer, wholesaler, pharmacist, physician, dentist, veterinarian, registered nurse, physician's assistant, or other authorized person. (d) No person shall affix any false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing controlled substances.”)

2 Same.

3 Health & Safety Code 11153 HS – Controlled substance prescriptions; issuance; filling; legality; offense; penalties [prescription fraud by medical professionals]. (“(a) A prescription for a controlled substance shall only be issued for a legitimate medical purpose by an individual practitioner acting in the usual course of his or her professional practice. The responsibility for the proper prescribing and dispensing of controlled substances is upon the prescribing practitioner, but a corresponding responsibility rests with the pharmacist who fills the prescription. Except as authorized by this division, the following are not legal prescriptions: (1) an order purporting to be a prescription which is issued not in the usual course of professional treatment or in legitimate and authorized research; or (2) an order for an addict or habitual user of controlled substances, which is issued not in the course of professional treatment or as part of an authorized narcotic treatment program, for the purpose of providing the user with controlled substances, sufficient to keep him or her comfortable by maintaining customary use. (b) Any person who knowingly violates this section shall be punished by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code, or in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by a fine not exceeding twenty thousand dollars ($20,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment. (c) No provision of the amendments to this section enacted during the second year of the 1981-82 Regular Session shall be construed as expanding the scope of practice of a pharmacist.”)

4 Same.

See also Health & Safety Code 11371.1 HS – Fraud and false representation [prescription fraud]; inducing minor to violate provisions; punishment. (“Any person who shall knowingly violate any of the provisions of Section 11173 or 11174 with respect to (1) a controlled substance specified in subdivision (b), (c), or (d) of Section 11055, or (2) a controlled substance specified in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 11056, or (3) a controlled substance which is a narcotic drug classified in Schedule III, IV, or V, or who in any voluntary manner solicits, induces, encourages or intimidates any minor with the intent that such minor shall commit any such offense, shall be punished by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code, or in a county jail not exceeding one year.”)

5 Same.

6 Same.

See also Penal Code 1170(h) PC. (“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision where the term is not specified in the underlying offense shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment in a county jail for 16 months, or two or three years.”)

7 Health & Safety Code 11173 HS – Fraud, deceit, misrepresentation [form of California prescription fraud], endnote 1, above.

8 Same.

9 Same.

10 See Health & Safety Code 11007 HS – Controlled substance [for purposes of prescription fraud laws]. (““Controlled substance,” unless otherwise specified, means a drug, substance, or immediate precursor which is listed in any schedule in Section 11054, 11055, 11056, 11057, or 11058.”)

11 Health & Safety Code 11173 HS – Fraud, deceit, misrepresentation [form of California prescription fraud], endnote 1, above.

12 Black's Law Dictionary (9th ed. 2009), fraud. (“1. A knowing misrepresentation of the truth or concealment of a material fact to induce another to act to his or her detriment. • Fraud is usu. a tort, but in some cases (esp. when the conduct is willful) it may be a crime [such as prescription fraud].”)

13 Health & Safety Code 11174 – False name or address [form of prescription fraud]. (“No person shall, in connection with the prescribing, furnishing, administering, or dispensing of a controlled substance, give a false name or false address.”)

14 Health & Safety Code 11153 HS – Controlled substance prescriptions; issuance; filling; legality; offense; penalties [prescription fraud by medical professionals], endnote 3, above.

15 Same.

See also Health & Safety Code 11210 HS – Conditions authorizing prescription; quantity; duration. (“A physician, surgeon, dentist, veterinarian, naturopathic doctor acting pursuant to Section 3640.7 of the Business and Professions Code, or podiatrist, or pharmacist acting within the scope of a project authorized under Article 1 (commencing with Section 128125) of Chapter 3 of Part 3 of Division 107 or within the scope of Section 4052.1, 4052.2, or 4052.6 of the Business and Professions Code, or registered nurse acting within the scope of a project authorized under Article 1 (commencing with Section 128125) of Chapter 3 of Part 3 of Division 107, or physician assistant acting within the scope of a project authorized under Article 1 (commencing with Section 128125) of Chapter 3 of Part 3 of Division 107, or naturopathic doctor acting within the scope of Section 3640.5 of the Business and Professions Code, or an optometrist acting within the scope of Section 3041 of the Business and Professions Code may prescribe for, furnish to, or administer controlled substances to his or her patient when the patient is suffering from a disease, ailment, injury, or infirmities attendant upon old age, other than addiction to a controlled substance. The physician, surgeon, dentist, veterinarian, naturopathic doctor acting pursuant to Section 3640.7 of the Business and Professions Code, or podiatrist, or pharmacist acting within the scope of a project authorized under Article 1 (commencing with Section 128125) of Chapter 3 of Part 3 of Division 107 or within the scope of Section 4052.1, 4052.2, or 4052.6 of the Business and Professions Code, or registered nurse acting within the scope of a project authorized under Article 1 (commencing with Section 128125) of Chapter 3 of Part 3 of Division 107, or physician assistant acting within the scope of a project authorized under Article 1 (commencing with Section 128125) of Chapter 3 of Part 3 of Division 107, or naturopathic doctor acting within the scope of Section 3640.5 of the Business and Professions Code, or an optometrist acting within the scope of Section 3041 of the Business and Professions Code shall prescribe, furnish, or administer controlled substances only when in good faith he or she believes the disease, ailment, injury, or infirmity requires the treatment [or else s/he may face prescription fraud charges].”)

16 See, e.g., Legal Drugs, Deadly Outcomes, Los Angeles Times, Nov. 11, 2012.

17 Health & Safety Code 11173 HS – Fraud, deceit, misrepresentation [form of California prescription fraud], endnote 1, above; Health & Safety Code 11153 HS – Controlled substance prescriptions; issuance; filling; legality; offense; penalties [prescription fraud by medical professionals], endnote 3, above; Health & Safety Code 11371.1 HS – Fraud and false representation [prescription fraud]; inducing minor to violate provisions; punishment, endnote 4, above.

18 Same.

19 Same.

See also Penal Code 672 PC – Offenses for which no fine prescribed; fine authorized in addition to imprisonment. ("Upon a conviction for any crime punishable by imprisonment in any jail or prison, in relation to which no fine is herein prescribed, the court may impose a fine on the offender not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000) in cases of misdemeanors [including misdemeanor prescription fraud] or ten thousand dollars ($10,000) in cases of felonies, in addition to the imprisonment prescribed.")

20 Same.

See also Penal Code 1170(h) PC. (“(h)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision where the term is not specified in the underlying offense [including felony prescription fraud] shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment in a county jail for 16 months, or two or three years.”)

21 Penal Code 1000 PC – Application of chapter to certain violations [does not include HS 11173]; Penal Code 1201 PC – Definition of terms included in Prop 36 [does not include prescription fraud in definition of “nonviolent drug possession offense”].

22 See Business & Professions Code 2236 – Criminal convictions and doctor discipline [may apply to doctors convicted of prescription fraud].

23 See Business & Professions Code 2761 -- Criminal convictions and nurse discipline [may apply to nurses convicted of prescription fraud].

24 San Jose criminal defense attorney Reve Bautista has over two decades of experience as a prosecutor, first at the office of the Contra Costa District Attorney and then at the San Francisco DA's Office. She conducted over 100 jury trials and other proceedings. Now, as a criminal defense lawyer fighting for her clients' rights, she defends against a variety of drug charges, including prescription fraud.

25 Health & Safety Code 11153 HS – Controlled substance prescriptions; issuance; filling; legality; offense; penalties [prescription fraud by medical professionals], endnote 3, above.

26 See People v. West (1956) 139 Cal.App.2d Supp. 923, 924. ("Entrapment is the conception and planning of an offense [such as prescription fraud] by an officer and his procurement of its commission by one who would not have perpetrated it except for the trickery, persuasion, or fraud of the officer. Persuasion or allurement must be used to entrap.")

27 See same.

28 Health & Safety Code 11368 HS – Forged or altered prescriptions; punishment [related offense to prescription fraud]. (“Every person who forges or alters a prescription or who issues or utters an altered prescription, or who issues or utters a prescription bearing a forged or fictitious signature for any narcotic drug, or who obtains any narcotic drug by any forged, fictitious, or altered prescription, or who has in possession any narcotic drug secured by a forged, fictitious, or altered prescription, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for not less than six months nor more than one year, or in the state prison.”)

29 Same.

30 Health & Safety Code 11350 HS – Possession of controlled substances [possible plea bargain from prescription fraud]. (“(a) Except as otherwise provided in this division, every person who possesses (1) any controlled substance specified in subdivision (b), (c), (e), or paragraph (1) of subdivision (f) of Section 11054, specified in paragraph (14), (15), or (20) of subdivision (d) of Section 11054, or specified in subdivision (b) or (c) of Section 11055, or specified in subdivision (h) of Section 11056, or (2) any controlled substance classified in Schedule III, IV, or V which is a narcotic drug, unless upon the written prescription of a physician, dentist, podiatrist, or veterinarian licensed to practice in this state, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, except that such person shall instead be punished pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code if that person has one or more prior convictions for an offense specified in clause (iv) of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 667 of the Penal Code or for an offense requiring registration pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 290 of the Penal Code.”)

31 See endnote 21, above.

32 Health & Safety Code 11352 HS – Transportation, sale, giving away, etc., of designated controlled substances; punishment; definition; prosecution for aiding and abetting [may be charged along with prescription fraud]. (“(a) Except as otherwise provided in this division, every person who transports, imports into this state, sells, furnishes, administers, or gives away, or offers to transport, import into this state, sell, furnish, administer, or give away, or attempts to import into this state or transport (1) any controlled substance specified in subdivision (b), (c), or (e), or paragraph (1) of subdivision (f) of Section 11054, specified in paragraph (14), (15), or (20) of subdivision (d) of Section 11054, or specified in subdivision (b) or (c) of Section 11055, or specified in subdivision (h) of Section 11056, or (2) any controlled substance classified in Schedule III, IV, or V which is a narcotic drug, unless upon the written prescription of a physician, dentist, podiatrist, or veterinarian licensed to practice in this state, shall be punished by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code for three, four, or five years. (b) Notwithstanding the penalty provisions of subdivision (a), any person who transports any controlled substances specified in subdivision (a) within this state from one county to another noncontiguous county shall be punished by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code for three, six, or nine years.”)

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