The Crime of Violating a Restraining or Protective Order
California Penal Code 273.6 PC

Penal Code 273.6 PC makes it a crime to violate the terms or conditions of a California restraining order (sometimes interchangeably referred to as a "protective order").1 This occurs when the judge issues a legal restraining order and you intentionally ignore the terms of that order.

Examples
  • The protective order states that you must not contact your ex-boyfriend, yet you continue to send him e-mails and texts
  • The restraining order states that you may not use force or violence upon your wife, yet you grab her and threaten to break her legs if she doesn't seek to have the order terminated
  • The protective order states that you may not own or possess any firearms during the length of the order, yet you fail to relinquish your gun to the proper authorities
  • The restraining order states that you must stay away from your family home, yet you slash your wife's tires while her car is in the driveway
Defenses

The good news is that a number of legal defenses apply to a PC 273.6 charge.  Some of these include:

  • the judge didn't legally issue the protective order
  • you didn't know about the restraining order
  • you didn't intentionally violate the order
  • you were falsely accused of violating the protective order
Penalties

If you are convicted of violating a California restraining order, the penalties vary quite a bit depending on

  1. whether it's your first or subsequent violation, and
  2. whether the victim suffered a physical injury.

The penalties may include up to three years in the California state prison for a felony, and up to one year in a county jail for a misdemeanor.  In addition, you could face

  • court fines and penalties,
  • victim restitution for any counseling and/or medical services that the victim reasonably incurred in connection with the offense,
  • counseling services, and
  • the relinquishment of any firearms and the inability to acquire any new ones for the length of the protective order.2

In this article, our California criminal defense attorneys3 explain Penal Code 273.6 PC California's law regarding violating a restraining or protective order by addressing the following:

1. What is a Protective / Restraining Order?

1.1. Types of restraining orders in California

1.2. Levels of protection - Emergency Protective Orders "EPOs", Temporary Restraining Orders "TROs" and Permanent Protective Orders "PPOs"

2. Penal Code 273.6 PC Violating a California Protective Order

2.1. Legal protective orders

2.2. Knowledge about the restraining order

2.3. Intentional violations

3. Legal Defenses to Violating a Protective Order

3.1. Lack of knowledge

3.2. Lack of intent

3.3. False allegations

4. Penalties, Punishment and Sentencing for Violating a California Restraining Order

4.1. Regarding firearms

5. Related Offenses

5.1. Domestic violence

5.2. Stalking

5.3. Criminal threats

5.4. Elder abuse

5.5. Vandalism

5.6. Contempt of Court

If, after reading this article, you would like more information, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group.

You may also find helpful information in our related articles on California Legal Defenses; California Wobblers; California Misdemeanors; California Felony Charges; Penal Code 646.9 PC California's Stalking Law; California's Domestic Violence Laws; Penal Code 273.5 PC California's Domestic Abuse Law; Penal Code 422 PC California's Criminal Threats Law; Penal Code 368 PC California's Elder Abuse Law; Penal Code 594 PC California's Vandalism Law; and Penal Code 166 PC California's Contempt of Court Law.

1. What is a Protective / Restraining Order?

Generally speaking, a protective order is a court order that is designed to protect a person from

  • harassment,
  • physical abuse,
  • stalking, or
  • threats

by the person named in the order.  The exact order will dictate exactly what type of behavior is or is not prohibited but will likely include provisions that the restrained party refrain from any type of contact with the protected individual. "Contact" generally includes

  • personal contact (that is, coming within a certain distance of that person),
  • phone calls or text messages,
  • e-mails,
  • interaction on social networking sites such as Facebook, or
  • any type of surveillance.4

1.1. Types of Restraining Orders

There are essentially four types of California protective orders that the courts will issue:

  1. domestic violence restraining orders (issued to protect individuals from abuse suffered at the hands of someone with whom that person shares an "intimate" relationship),
  2. civil harassment restraining orders (issued to protect from people who do not qualify as "intimate partners" such as neighbors, co-workers and other people with whom you are not close),
  3. elder or dependent adult abuse restraining orders (issued to protect elders...those who are 65 and older...and those who are between 18 and 64 who suffer from certain disabilities from physical, emotional and financial abuse and/or neglect), and
  4. workplace violence restraining orders (requested by an employer to protect an employee from violence or threatened violence in the workplace).

1.2. Levels of protection - Emergency Protective Orders "EPOs", Temporary Restraining Orders "TROs" and Permanent Protective Orders "PPOs"

There are three levels of protection within each of the above protective orders:

1) Emergency Protective Orders (EPO) -

Emergency Protective Orders are just that - issued in an emergency.  These types of orders are most frequently requested by the police when they respond to a domestic violence call.  If the officer suspects that someone is in danger, he/she will call an "on-call" judge to issue the order.

The officer informs the offender, if present, about the order which takes effect immediately.  An EPO is good for up to seven (7) days.  Beyond that, you will need to go to the court to request a temporary or permanent order.5

2) Temporary Restraining Orders (TRO) -

Temporary Restraining Orders typically last for up to two (2) or three (3) weeks.  You ask the court to issue a TRO when

(a) your emergency protective order expires, or
(b) you are the victim of harassment.

For purposes of California protective orders, "harassment" refers to

  • unlawful violence (or a credible threat of unlawful violence),
  • behavior that seriously alarms or annoys another person that serves no legitimate purpose, and
  • behavior that would cause a reasonable person to suffer substantial emotional distress and that actually does causes emotional distress to the victim.6

Before the TRO expires, the court will generally hold a hearing to determine if it should issue a permanent restraining order.7

3) Permanent Restraining Orders (PRO) -

The court will issue a permanent restraining order if it believes...after conducting a hearing...that the person applying for the order needs extended protection.  The judge will hear from both the applicant and the person who would be restrained by the order in order to determine

a) whether to issue the order,
b) the types of restrictions to include in the order, and
c) the length of the order.

PROs may last for up to three (3) years (∗and can be extended if necessary) and may include orders that the restrained individual

  • leave the home and secure a new residence,
  • refrain from having any contact (this includes personal contact, telephone contact and communication by any other electronic means) with the protected parties (which may include a partner/spouse, child, pet, etc.),
  • maintain a certain distance from the protected party/parties,
  • turn in any weapons that he/she possesses (and not acquire any new ones), and possibly
  • pay the attorney's fees of the party seeking the restraining order.8

If you are the person seeking a protective order, the courts will not require that you have an attorney. But having one is strongly advised.  The paperwork and deadlines that are involved in securing a protective order may be overwhelming and complex.  As a result, if you want to ensure that you receive the protection you're looking for, you should contact a skilled California attorney to help with the process.

Similarly, if you wish to contest a protective order, you may want to hire an attorney to challenge its validity on your behalf.  Experienced lawyers know the types of legal arguments that are likely to persuade a judge that the restrictions imposed by a protective order are unreasonable and/or unnecessary.

2. Penal Code 273.6 PC Violating a California Protective Order

If you are the "restrained" person who is the subject of a restraining or protective order...and you do not adhere to the terms and conditions contained in the order...prosecutors may charge you with violating a protective order under Penal Code 273.6 PC.9

In order to convict you of violating a restraining order...sometimes alternatively referred to as "contempt of court"...the prosecutor must prove the following facts (otherwise known as "elements" of the crime):

  1. the judge issued a legal protective order,
  2. you knew about the order, and
  3. you intentionally violated that order.10

Let's take a closer look at each of these elements in order to better understand their meanings.

2.1. Legal protective orders

If the judge orders a legal protective order against you, the law requires you to follow it - period.

However, some restraining orders are illegally issued. This could be because the order was issued in a court that didn't have the proper authority to do so (a power known as jurisdiction) or because there was no legal basis to issue the order. If the protective order itself is illegal, you are not bound by its terms.

California courts have held that "an order of contempt [that is, disobeying a court order] cannot stand if the underlying order is invalid."11

But as Ventura criminal defense attorney John Murray12 explains, "If you believe a restraining order is invalid, we advise that you first consult with an experienced California lawyer who can help challenge it before you are arrested for violating it.  It's much easier to present a persuasive case before you are accused of failing to comply with a judge's orders."

2.2. Knowledge about the restraining order

Before you can be convicted of violating a restraining order, the prosecutor must prove that you knew about the protective order.  This includes having had an opportunity to read the order (even if you didn't actually do so).13

California law is very specific about what are known as "notice" requirements.  A person named in a restraining order must be given notice that his/her liberties are being restricted.  This notice may be served

  • orally by the judge if the person to be restrained is present in court,
  • in writing by a third-party (which could include a police officer) who personally presents the order to the person named in the order, or
  • verbally by an officer who has been called to enforce the order when that officer determines that the named party was otherwise unaware of the order's existence.14

2.3. Intentional violations

If you know that the court has issued a legal restraining order...and intentionally choose to ignore it...you commit the crime of violating a protective order.

This means that if, for example, you are prohibited from contacting your ex-girlfriend...yet you send her flowers as a sign that you are sorry...you are intentionally violating the order.  You were specifically ordered not to contact her and willfully violated that order.

However, if you were told to maintain a certain distance from your ex...but, for example, you accidentally bumped into her in the supermarket or at a movie...you have not intentionally violated that order.

In a situation such as this, you would need to demonstrate that you promptly left the area and/or didn't try to communicate with her once you noticed her presence.

3. Legal Defenses to Violating a
California Restraining Order

Fortunately, a variety of California legal defenses apply to Penal Code 273.6 PC California's law against violating a restraining order. A skilled California defense lawyer could assert these on your behalf.  The following are some examples:

3.1. Lack of knowledge

If you didn't know about the protective order, you can't be convicted of intentionally violating it.  Clearly this defense has a better shot of working if you were not present in court at the time the judge issued the order or present at the scene when a law enforcement officer told the victim that he/she received the okay for the emergency protective order.

But if you can demonstrate that you never received notice that a California restraining order got issued against you...perhaps it was sent to the wrong address or mistakenly presented to the wrong person...you should not be held responsible for violating the order.

3.2. Lack of intent

And even if you did know that a judge issued a protective order against you...but you didn't realize that you were in violation of that order...you still shouldn't be held criminally responsible for violating that order.

This would be the case if you accidentally violate its terms (for example, you unwittingly run into the protected person in public or at a social function).

But note this caveat:  Even if the protected party contacts you and tells you he/she wants to see you to reconcile, you cannot comply.  The judge is the only person who can lift the terms of an order.  So even if you honestly believe the victim no longer wishes to enforce the order...and therefore you do not believe you are intentionally violating that order...you must nevertheless comply with its terms until the protected party contacts the judge and the judge actually terminates the order.

Similarly, even if you believe the restraining order was inappropriately ordered...for example, because it was based on an exaggerated, overblown report...you must still comply with its orders.  The failure to do so subjects you to charges for violating Penal Code 273.6.

3.3. False allegations

In the proceeding section we said that even if the protected party contacts you and tells you he/she wants to see you to reconcile, you cannot comply with that request as long as there is an order restraining you from doing so.

This is not only because it is against the law to violate the terms of that order but also because it sets the stage for you to be "set up" by the protected party.  If he/she can get you to engage in contact or to violate the order in some way, he/she can then contact the police and have you arrested for this crime.

And, on that note, the protected party can claim that you have violated the order when you never did so. The person can flat out lie.  He/she could claim that you are
stalking him/her by following him/her, calling and hanging up, or doing any number of acts that don't require physical proof.  Anger, jealousy, revenge and/or custody battles often provide the motivation for these types of false accusations.

But do not despair. As former police investigators and district attorneys, we know how to investigate cases in order to expose false allegations for what they really are and to prove that you are innocent of the charge(s).

4. Penalties, Punishment and Sentencing for Violating a California Restraining Order

Penal Code 273.6 PC is typically a California misdemeanor. If you are convicted of violating a protective order, you face a maximum $1,000 fine and up to one year in a county jail.

Moreover, a judge who grants probation has discretion to order relevant terms of probation such as:

  • mandatory counseling, including anger management, domestic violence classes, substance abuse classes, etc.,
  • payments to a battered women's shelter, and/or
  • restitution to the victim for any counseling or medical expenses that were reasonably incurred as a result of the offense.15

If this is your second conviction for violating a protective order within a seven-year period...and the violation involves an act of violence or a credible threat of violence...the offense becomes a California wobbler . This means the prosecutor could file the Penal Code 273.6 PC charge as:

If...by violating your California restraining order...the protected party suffers a physical injury, you face a statutory minimum of at least 30 days in the county jail.

If this is your second conviction for violating a protective order within one-year...and the victim suffers a physical injury...the offense becomes a wobbler punishable by either:

  • six months to one-year of jail for a misdemeanor, or
  • in the case of a felony, (a) probation and up to a year county jail, or (b) 16 months or two or three years in the state prison.

While the minimum 30-day and six-month sentences that apply to violations that involve physical injury are supposed to be mandatory, they do not have to be.16

If you serve a minimum of 48 hours in jail on the 30-day sentence or a minimum of 30 days on the six-month sentence, a judge has discretion to stay the balance of the custody time. In an effort to persuade a judge to do this, a criminal defense lawyer will want to:

  • present mitigating factors on your behalf,
  • explain that you are remorseful and understand that you must allow the protected party to regain a sense of security, and
  • present evidence that you are in the process of successfully completing your counseling.

4.1. Regarding firearms

It is against the law to own, possess, purchase or otherwise acquire a gun or other firearms while you have a restraining order in effect against you.  These restrictions will appear on the face of the California protective order along with instructions either to

  • relinquish your weapons to a local law enforcement agency, or
  • sell them to a licensed gun dealer.

If you nevertheless knowingly own or possess a firearm during this timeframe, you face a misdemeanor, punishable by up to $1,000 and a maximum one-year county jail sentence.

If you purchase, receive or attempt to purchase or receive a gun during this timeframe, you face a wobbler, punishable in the same manner for the misdemeanor, or by the same fine and up to three years in the state prison for a felony.17

5. Related Offenses

There are a number of crimes that are related to Penal Code 273.6 PC, typically because the violation of the restraining order is either based on or triggers at least one of the others.  The following are some of the most common:

5.1. Domestic violence

You violate California's domestic violence laws when you threaten or harm an intimate partner.  "Intimate partners" may include

  • your current or former spouse,
  • a person with whom you live or have lived,
  • a person whom you are or were dating, and
  • the mother or father of your child.

When an officer is called to the scene of a domestic dispute, he/she often calls a judge for an emergency protective order.  And...depending on the circumstances...this EPO may turn into a TRO or even a permanent restraining order.

And many times, when someone violates a California restraining order, it is because he/she is committing or attempting to commit another act of domestic violence against the protected party.

5.2. Stalking

Penal Code 646.9 PC California's stalking law prohibits harassing or threatening another person to the point where that individual fears for his/her safety or the safety of his/her family.  If you violate this law, you face a wobbler, punishable by

  • a maximum $1,000 fine and up to one year in a county jail for a misdemeanor, or
  • up to three years in the California state prison and a maximum $10,000 fine for a felony.

You will also most likely have a California protective order issued against you.  And if you subsequently "stalk" the protected party once that order is in place, you face an automatic felony, punishable by up to four years in the state prison.18

Similarly, if you have been previously convicted of a felony for violating

you face a wobbler.  However, unlike the wobbler penalties noted above, the felony subjects you to up to five years in the state prison.19

5.3. Criminal threats

Penal Code 422 PC California's criminal threats law prohibits threatening to kill or harm someone when that person reasonably fears that you immediately intend to execute that threat (regardless of whether or not you actually do).

Like the offenses above, if you make criminal threats, it will most likely result in the court issuing a protective order against you.  And similarly, if you continue to make these threats while under a restraining order, prosecutors will likely charge you with PC 273.6 as well as Penal Code 422 PC.

If you are convicted of making criminal threats, you face a wobbler.  The misdemeanor carries a maximum one-year county jail sentence and up to $1,000 in fines.  The felony carries up to three years in the state prison and is a strike under California three strikes law.20

5.4. Elder abuse

Penal Code 368 PC California's elder abuse laws protect seniors 65 and older from acts of neglect and/or physical, emotional, or financial abuse.  Violating these laws will likely result in having a restraining order issued against you.  And continuing the conduct once a restraining order is in place will result in a Penal Code 273.6 PC violation of a protective order as well as elder abuse charges.

Elder abuse is also a wobbler, punishable by up to one year in the county jail for a misdemeanor or by up to four years in the state prison for a felony.21

5.5. Vandalism

Penal Code 594 PC California's vandalism law prohibits defacing, damaging or destroying someone else's property.  This prohibition also applies to property that you share with someone else.

This means that if, for example, you slash your ex's tires...or even the tires of your wife's car that you own...while there is a California restraining order against you, prosecutors will likely charge you with violating Penal Code 273.6 PC and PC 594.

Vandalism is a wobbler that may be charged as an infraction, a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on

  1. the value of the vandalized property, and
  2. your criminal history.22

5.6. Penal Code 166 PC contempt of court

Finally, Penal Code 166 PC California's law against contempt of court is very closely related to PC 273.6.  In fact, both punish willful violations of a California protective order.  However, 166 PC is broader than 273.6 PC and prohibits a variety of other conduct that all falls under the umbrella of disobeying a judge's orders and/or acting inappropriately in court.

For example, "contempt of court" charges can apply to court orders that limit picketing activities and/or protest demonstrations.

Most first-time contempt of court violations under Penal Code 166 are misdemeanors, although ignoring gun-restrictions that are imposed in connection with a court order is a wobbler.

Call us for help...
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If you or loved one is charged with Penal Code 273.6 PC violation a restraining order and you are looking to hire an attorney for representation, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group. We can provide a free consultation in office or by phone. We have local offices in Los Angeles, the San Fernando Valley, Pasadena, Long Beach, Orange County, Ventura, San Bernardino, Rancho Cucamonga, Riverside, San Diego, Sacramento, Oakland, San Francisco, San Jose and throughout California.

Additionally, our Las Vegas Nevada criminal defense attorneys are available to answer any questions about Nevada's laws regarding restraining or protective orders.  For more information, we invite you to contact our local attorneys at one of our Nevada law offices, located in Reno and Las Vegas.24

Online Resource:

California Courts: Self Help Center - Introduction to Restraining Orders

Legal References:

1 Penal Code 273.6 PC -- Intentional and knowing violation of court protective order.  ("(a) Any intentional and knowing violation of a protective order, as defined in Section 6218 of the Family Code, or of an order issued pursuant to Section 527.6, 527.8, or 527.85 of the Code of Civil Procedure, or Section 15657.03 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by both that fine and imprisonment. (b) In the event of a violation of subdivision (a) that results in physical injury, the person shall be punished by a fine of not more than two thousand dollars ($2,000), or by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than 30 days nor more than one year, or by both that fine and imprisonment. However, if the person is imprisoned in a county jail for at least 48 hours, the court may, in the interest of justice and for reasons stated on the record, reduce or eliminate the 30-day minimum imprisonment required by this subdivision. In determining whether to reduce or eliminate the minimum imprisonment pursuant to this subdivision, the court shall consider the seriousness of the facts before the court, whether there are additional allegations of a violation of the [California restraining] order during the pendency of the case before the court, the probability of future violations, the safety of the victim, and whether the defendant has successfully completed or is making progress with counseling. (c) Subdivisions (a) and (b) shall apply to the following court orders: (1) Any order issued pursuant to Section 6320 or 6389 of the Family Code. (2) An order excluding one party from the family dwelling or from the dwelling of the other. (3) An order enjoining a party from specified behavior that the court determined was necessary to effectuate the order described in subdivision (a). (4) Any order issued by another state that is recognized under Part 5 (commencing with Section 6400) of Division 10 of the Family Code. (d) A subsequent conviction for a violation of an order described in subdivision (a), occurring within seven years of a prior conviction for a violation of an order described in subdivision (a) and involving an act of violence or "a credible threat" of violence, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 139, is punishable by imprisonment in a county jail not to exceed one year, or in the state prison. (e) In the event of a subsequent conviction for a violation of an [California protective] order described in subdivision (a) for an act occurring within one year of a prior conviction for a violation of an order described in subdivision (a) that results in physical injury to a victim, the person shall be punished by a fine of not more than two thousand dollars ($2,000), or by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than six months nor more than one year, by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison. However, if the person is imprisoned in a county jail for at least 30 days, the court may, in the interest of justice and for reasons stated in the record, reduce or eliminate the six-month minimum imprisonment required by this subdivision. In determining whether to reduce or eliminate the minimum imprisonment pursuant to this subdivision, the court shall consider the seriousness of the facts before the court, whether there are additional allegations of a violation of the [California restraining] order during the pendency of the case before the court, the probability of future violations, the safety of the victim, and whether the defendant has successfully completed or is making progress with counseling. (f) The prosecuting agency of each county shall have the primary responsibility for the enforcement of orders described in subdivisions (a), (b), (d), and (e). (g)(1) Every person who owns, possesses, purchases, or receives a firearm knowing he or she is prohibited from doing so by the provisions of a [California] protective order as defined in Section 136.2 of this code, Section 6218 of the Family Code, or Section 527.6 or 527.8 of the Code of Civil Procedure, or Section 15657.03 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, shall be punished under Section 29825. (2) Every person subject to a protective order described in paragraph (1) shall not be prosecuted under this section for owning, possessing, purchasing, or receiving a firearm to the extent that firearm is granted an exemption pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 527.9 of the Code of Civil Procedure, or subdivision (h) of Section 6389 of the Family Code. (h) If probation is granted upon conviction of a violation of subdivision (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e), the court shall impose probation consistent with Section 1203.097, and the conditions of probation may include, in lieu of a fine, one or both of the following requirements: (1) That the defendant make payments to a battered women's shelter or to a shelter for abused elder persons or dependent adults, up to a maximum of five thousand dollars ($5,000), pursuant to Section 1203.097. (2) That the defendant reimburse the victim for reasonable costs of counseling and other reasonable expenses that the court finds are the direct result of the defendant's offense. (i) For any order to pay a fine, make payments to a battered women's shelter, or pay restitution as a condition of probation under subdivision (e), the court shall make a determination of the defendant's ability to pay. In no event shall any order to make payments to a battered women's shelter be made if it would impair the ability of the defendant to pay direct restitution to the victim or court-ordered child support. Where the injury to a married person is caused in whole or in part by the criminal acts of his or her spouse in violation of this section, the community property may not be used to discharge the liability of the offending spouse for restitution to the injured spouse, required by Section 1203.04, as operative on or before August 2, 1995, or Section 1202.4, or to a shelter for costs with regard to the injured spouse and dependents, required by this section, until all separate property of the offending spouse is exhausted.")

2 See same regarding penalties for violating a California restraining order.

3 Our California criminal defense attorneys have local Los Angeles law offices in Beverly Hills, Burbank, Glendale, Lancaster, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Pasadena, Pomona, Torrance, Van Nuys, West Covina, and Whittier.  We have additional law offices conveniently located throughout the state in Orange County, San Diego, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura, San Jose, Oakland, the San Francisco Bay area, and several nearby cities.

4 California Code of Civil Procedure 527.6 -- Harassment; temporary restraining order and injunction; procedure; domestic violence; support person; costs and attorney fees; punishment.  ("(a) A person who has suffered harassment as defined in subdivision (b) may seek a [California] temporary restraining order and an injunction prohibiting harassment as provided in this section. (b) For the purposes of this section, "harassment" is unlawful violence, a credible threat of violence, or a knowing and willful course of conduct directed at a specific person that seriously alarms, annoys, or harasses the person, and that serves no legitimate purpose. The course of conduct must be such as would cause a reasonable person to suffer substantial emotional distress, and must actually cause substantial emotional distress to the plaintiff. As used in this subdivision: (1) "Unlawful violence" is any assault or battery, or stalking as prohibited in Section 646.9 of the Penal Code, but shall not include lawful acts of self-defense or defense of others. (2) "Credible threat of violence" is a knowing and willful statement or course of conduct that would place a reasonable person in fear for his or her safety, or the safety of his or her immediate family, and that serves no legitimate purpose. (3) "Course of conduct" is a pattern of conduct composed of a series of acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose, including following or stalking an individual, making harassing telephone calls to an individual, or sending harassing correspondence to an individual by any means, including, but not limited to, the use of public or private mails, interoffice mail, fax, or computer e-mail. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of "course of conduct." (c) Upon filing a petition for an injunction under this section, the plaintiff may obtain a [California] temporary restraining order in accordance with Section 527, except to the extent this section provides a rule that is inconsistent. A temporary restraining order may be issued with or without notice upon an affidavit that, to the satisfaction of the court, shows reasonable proof of harassment of the plaintiff by the defendant, and that great or irreparable harm would result to the plaintiff. In the discretion of the court, and on a showing of good cause, a temporary restraining order or injunction, issued under this section may include other named family or household members who reside with the plaintiff. A [California] temporary restraining order issued under this section shall remain in effect, at the court's discretion, for a period not to exceed 15 days, or, if the court extends the time for hearing under subdivision (d), not to exceed 22 days, unless otherwise modified or terminated by the court. (d) Within 15 days, or, if good cause appears to the court, 22 days from the date the temporary restraining order is issued, a hearing shall be held on the petition for the injunction. The defendant may file a response that explains, excuses, justifies, or denies the alleged harassment or may file a cross-complaint under this section. At the hearing, the judge shall receive any testimony that is relevant, and may make an independent inquiry. If the judge finds by clear and convincing evidence that unlawful harassment exists, an injunction shall issue prohibiting the harassment. An injunction issued pursuant to this section shall have a duration of not more than three years. At any time within the three months before the expiration of the injunction, the plaintiff may apply for a renewal of the injunction by filing a new petition for an injunction under this section. (e) This section does not preclude either party from representation by private counsel or from appearing on the party's own behalf. (f) In a proceeding under this section if there are allegations or threats of domestic violence, a support person may accompany a party in court and, if the party is not represented by an attorney, may sit with the party at the table that is generally reserved for the party and the party's attorney. The support person is present to provide moral and emotional support for a person who alleges he or she is a victim of domestic violence. The support person is not present as a legal adviser and may not provide legal advice. The support person may assist the person who alleges he or she is a victim of domestic violence in feeling more confident that he or she will not be injured or threatened by the other party during the proceedings if the person who alleges he or she is a victim of domestic violence and the other party are required to be present in close proximity. This subdivision does not preclude the court from exercising its discretion to remove the support person from the courtroom if the court believes the support person is prompting, swaying, or influencing the party assisted by the support person. (g) Upon the filing of a petition for an injunction [also known as a California permanent restraining order] under this section, the defendant shall be personally served with a copy of the petition, temporary restraining order, if any, and notice of hearing of the petition. Service shall be made at least five days before the hearing. The court may for good cause, on motion of the plaintiff or on its own motion, shorten the time for service on the defendant. (h) The court shall order the plaintiff or the attorney for the plaintiff to deliver a copy of each temporary restraining order or injunction, or modification or termination thereof, granted under this section, by the close of the business day on which the order was granted, to the law enforcement agencies within the court's discretion as are requested by the plaintiff. Each appropriate law enforcement agency shall make available information as to the existence and current status of these orders to law enforcement officers responding to the scene of reported harassment. An order issued under this section shall, on request of the plaintiff, be served on the defendant, whether or not the defendant has been taken into custody, by any law enforcement officer who is present at the scene of reported harassment involving the parties to the proceeding. The plaintiff shall provide the officer with an endorsed copy of the order and a proof of service that the officer shall complete and send to the issuing court. Upon receiving information at the scene of an incident of harassment that a [California] protective order has been issued under this section, or that a person who has been taken into custody is the subject of an order, if the protected person cannot produce a certified copy of the order, a law enforcement officer shall immediately attempt to verify the existence of the order. If the law enforcement officer determines that a protective order has been issued, but not served, the officer shall immediately notify the defendant of the terms of the order and shall at that time also enforce the order. Verbal notice of the terms of the order shall constitute service of the order and is sufficient notice for the purposes of this section and for the purposes of Section 273.6 and subdivision (g) of Section 29800 of the Penal Code. (i) The prevailing party in any action brought under this section may be awarded court costs and attorney's fees, if any. (j) Any willful disobedience of any temporary restraining order or injunction granted under this section is punishable pursuant to Section 273.6 of the Penal Code. (k)(1) A person subject to a protective order issued under this section shall not own, possess, purchase, receive, or attempt to purchase or receive a firearm while the protective order is in effect. (2) The court shall order a person subject to a protective order issued under this section to relinquish any firearms he or she owns or possesses pursuant to Section 527.9. (3) Every person who owns, possesses, purchases or receives, or attempts to purchase or receive a firearm while the [California] protective order is in effect is punishable pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 29800 of the Penal Code. (l) This section does not apply to any action or proceeding covered by Title 1.6C (commencing with Section 1788) of the Civil Code or by Division 10 (commencing with Section 6200) of the Family Code. This section does not preclude a plaintiff from using other existing civil remedies. (m) The Judicial Council shall promulgate forms and instructions therefor, and rules for service of process, scheduling of hearings, and any other matters required by this section. The petition and response forms shall be simple and concise, and their use by parties in actions brought pursuant to this section shall be mandatory. (n) A temporary restraining order or injunction relating to harassment or domestic violence issued by a court pursuant to this section shall be issued on forms adopted by the Judicial Council of California and that have been approved by the Department of Justice pursuant to subdivision (i) of Section 6380 of the Family Code. However, the fact that an order issued by a court pursuant to this section was not issued on forms adopted by the Judicial Council and approved by the Department of Justice shall not, in and of itself, make the order unenforceable. (o) Information on any [California] temporary restraining order or injunction relating to harassment or domestic violence issued by a court pursuant to this section shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice in accordance with subdivision (b) of Section 6380 of the Family Code. (p) There is no filing fee for a petition that alleges that a person has inflicted or threatened violence against the petitioner, or stalked the petitioner, or acted or spoken in any other manner that has placed the petitioner in reasonable fear of violence, and that seeks a protective or restraining order or injunction restraining stalking or future violence or threats of violence, in any action brought pursuant to this section. No fee shall be paid for a subpoena filed in connection with a petition alleging these acts. No fee shall be paid for filing a response to a petition alleging these acts. (q)(1) Subject to paragraph (4) of subdivision (b) of Section 6103.2 of the Government Code, there shall be no fee for the service of process of a protective order, restraining order, or injunction to be issued, if any of the following conditions apply: (A) The protective order, restraining order, or injunction issued pursuant to this section is based upon stalking, as prohibited by Section 646.9 of the Penal Code. (B) The protective order, restraining order, or injunction issued pursuant to this section is based upon a credible threat of violence. (C) The protective order, restraining order, or injunction is issued pursuant to Section 6222 of the Family Code. (2) The Judicial Council shall prepare and develop application forms for applicants who wish to avail themselves of the services described in this subdivision.")

5 California Penal Code 646.91 PC --  Stalking; emergency protective orders; issuance; expiration; service; filing; enforcement; liability; scope of section; punishment.  ("(a) Notwithstanding any other law, a judicial officer may issue an ex parte [California] emergency protective order where a peace officer, as defined in Section 830.1, 830.2, or 830.32, asserts reasonable grounds to believe that a person is in immediate and present danger of stalking based upon the person's allegation that he or she has been willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly followed or harassed by another person who has made a credible threat with the intent of placing the person who is the target of the threat in reasonable fear for his or her safety, or the safety of his or her immediate family, within the meaning of Section 646.9. (b) A peace officer who requests an [California] emergency protective order shall reduce the order to writing and sign it. (c) An emergency protective order shall include all of the following: (1) A statement of the grounds asserted for the order. (2) The date and time the order expires. (3) The address of the superior court for the district or county in which the protected party resides. (4) The following statements, which shall be printed in English and Spanish: (A) "To the protected person: This order will last until the date and time noted above. If you wish to seek continuing protection, you will have to apply for an order from the court at the address noted above. You may seek the advice of an attorney as to any matter connected with your application for any future court orders. The attorney should be consulted promptly so that the attorney may assist you in making your application." (B) "To the restrained person: This order will last until the date and time noted above. The protected party may, however, obtain a more permanent restraining order from the court. You may seek the advice of an attorney as to any matter connected with the application. The attorney should be consulted promptly so that the attorney may assist you in responding to the application. You may not own, possess, purchase or receive, or attempt to purchase or receive a firearm while this order is in effect." (d) An emergency protective order may be issued under this section only if the judicial officer finds both of the following: (1) That reasonable grounds have been asserted to believe that an immediate and present danger of stalking, as defined in Section 646.9, exists. (2) That an [California] emergency protective order is necessary to prevent the occurrence or reoccurrence of the stalking activity. (e) An emergency protective order may include either of the following specific orders as appropriate: (1) A harassment protective order as described in Section 527.6 of the Code of Civil Procedure. (2) A workplace violence protective order as described in Section 527.8 of the Code of Civil Procedure. (f) An emergency protective order shall be issued without prejudice to any person. (g) An emergency protective order expires at the earlier of the following times: (1) The close of judicial business on the fifth court day following the day of its issuance. (2) The seventh calendar day following the day of its issuance. (h) A peace officer who requests an emergency protective order shall do all of the following: (1) Serve the order on the restrained person, if the restrained person can reasonably be located. (2) Give a copy of the order to the protected person, or, if the protected person is a minor child, to a parent or guardian of the protected child if the parent or guardian can reasonably be located, or to a person having temporary custody of the child. (3) File a copy of the order with the court as soon as practicable after issuance. (i) A peace officer shall use every reasonable means to enforce an [California] emergency protective order. (j) A peace officer who acts in good faith to enforce an emergency protective order is not civilly or criminally liable. (k) A peace officer who requests an emergency protective order under this section shall carry copies of the order while on duty. (l) A peace officer described in subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 830.32 who requests an emergency protective order pursuant to this section shall also notify the sheriff or police chief of the city in whose jurisdiction the peace officer's college or school is located after issuance of the order. (m) "Judicial officer," as used in this section, means a judge, commissioner, or referee. (n) A person subject to an emergency protective order under this section shall not own, possess, purchase, or receive a firearm while the order is in effect. (o) Nothing in this section shall be construed to permit a court to issue an emergency protective order prohibiting speech or other activities that are constitutionally protected or protected by the laws of this state or by the United States or activities occurring during a labor dispute, as defined by Section 527.3 of the Code of Civil Procedure, including, but not limited to, picketing and hand billing. (p) The Judicial Council shall develop forms, instructions, and rules for the scheduling of hearings and other procedures established pursuant to this section. (q) Any intentional disobedience of any [California] emergency protective order granted under this section is punishable pursuant to Section 166. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to prevent punishment under Section 646.9, in lieu of punishment under this section, if a violation of Section 646.9 is also pled and proven.")

6 See California Code of Civil Procedure 527.6 -- Harassment; temporary restraining order and injunction; procedure; domestic violence; support person; costs and attorney fees; punishment, subdivision (b) endnote 4, above.

7 See same, subdivision (d).

8 See California Code of Civil Procedure 527.6 -- Harassment; temporary restraining order and injunction; procedure; domestic violence; support person; costs and attorney fees; punishment, endnote 4, above.

9 See Penal Code 273.6 PC California's law against violating a protective order, endnote 1, above.

10 The Judicial Council of California Advisory Committee on Criminal Jury Instructions "CALCRIM" 2701 - Violation of a California Protective Order.  ("The defendant is charged [in Count ] with violating a court order [in violation of <insert appropriate code section[s] >].To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must prove that: 1 A court [lawfully] issued a written order that the defendant <insert description of content of order>; 2 The court order was a (protective order/stay-away court order/ <insert description of other type of order>), issued under <insert code section under which order made> [in a pending criminal proceeding involving domestic violence/as a condition of probation after a conviction for (domestic violence/elder abuse/dependent adult abuse)]. 3 The defendant knew of the court order; 4 The defendant had the ability to follow the court order; AND <For violations of Pen. Code, § 166(c)(3), choose "willfully"; for violations of Pen. Code § 273.6(c), choose "intentionally" for the scienter requirement. > 5 The defendant (willfully/intentionally) violated the court order. Someone commits an act willfully when he or she does it willingly or on purpose. [The People must prove that the defendant knew of the court order and that (he/she) had the opportunity to read the order or to otherwise become familiar with what it said. But the People do not have to prove that the defendant actually read the court order.] [Domestic violence means abuse committed against (an adult/a fully emancipated minor) who is a (spouse[,]/ [or] former spouse[,]/ [or] cohabitant[,]/ [or] former cohabitant[,]/ [or] person with whom the defendant has had a child[,]/ [or] person who dated or is dating the defendant[,]/ [or] person who was or is engaged to the defendant). Abuse means intentionally or recklessly causing or attempting to cause bodily injury, or placing another person in reasonable fear of imminent serious bodily injury to himself or herself or to someone else.] [The term cohabitants means two unrelated persons living together for a substantial period of time, resulting in some permanency of the relationship. Factors that may determine whether people are cohabiting include, but are not limited to, (1) sexual relations between the parties while sharing the same residence, (2) sharing of income or expenses, (3) joint use or ownership of property, (4) the parties' holding themselves out as (husband and wife/domestic partners), (5) the continuity of the relationship, and (6) the length of the relationship.] [(Elder/(D/d)ependent adult) abuse means that under circumstances or conditions likely to produce great bodily harm or death, the defendant: 1 Willfully caused or permitted any (elder/dependent adult) to suffer; OR 2 Inflicted on any (elder/dependent adult) unjustifiable physical pain or mental suffering; OR 3 Having the care or custody of any (elder/dependent adult), willfully caused or permitted the person or health of the (elder/dependent adult) to be injured; OR 4 Willfully caused or permitted the (elder/dependent adult) to be placed in a situation in which (his/her) person or health was endangered. [An elder is someone who is at least 65 years old.] [A dependent adult is someone who is between 18 and 64 years old and has physical or mental limitations that restrict his or her ability to carry out normal activities or to protect his or her rights.] [This definition includes an adult who has physical or developmental disabilities or whose physical or mental abilities have decreased because of age.] [A dependent adult is also someone between 18 and 64 years old who is an inpatient in a (health facility/psychiatric health facility/ [or] chemical dependency recovery hospital).]]")

11 People v. Gonzalez (1996) 12 Cal.4th 804, 816.

12 Ventura criminal defense lawyer John Murray has successfully defended numerous clients charged with violating a restraining order under California Penal Code 273.6 PC.  Mr. Murray represents clients at the Ventura Hall of Justice, the Van Nuys courthouse, the Pasadena courthouse, the Burbank courthouse, the Glendale courthouse, the Lancaster courthouse, the San Fernando courthouse, and the Criminal Courts Building.

13 People v. Brindley (1965) 236 Cal.App.2d Supp. 925, 927-928.  ("'You are instructed that in order to find a defendant guilty of willful disobedience to a court order [such as a California retraining order], in the absence of the defendant actually having read the order or having had it read to him, you must find that the defendant had a reasonable amount of time or opportunity in which to gain actual knowledge of the contents of the order.")

14 See California Code of Civil Procedure 527.6 -- Harassment; temporary restraining order and injunction; procedure; domestic violence; support person; costs and attorney fees; punishment, endnote 4, above.

15 See Penal Code 273.6 PC California's law against violating a restraining order, endnote 1, above.

16 See same.

17 See same, subdivision (g).

See also Penal Code 29825 PC -- Persons restricted from purchasing, receiving, owning, or possessing firearm by temporary restraining order, injunction, or protective order; punishment for violation; probation; notice of restriction on protective order.  ("(a) Every person who purchases or receives, or attempts to purchase or receive, a firearm knowing that the person is prohibited from doing so by a [California] temporary restraining order or injunction issued pursuant to Section 527.6, 527.8, or 527.85 of the Code of Civil Procedure, a protective order as defined in Section 6218 of the Family Code, a protective order issued pursuant to Section 136.2 or 646.91 of this code, or a protective order issued pursuant to Section 15657.03 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, is guilty of a public offense, which shall be punishable by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year or in the state prison, by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that imprisonment and fine. (b) Every person who owns or possesses a firearm knowing that the person is prohibited from doing so by a [California] temporary restraining order or injunction issued pursuant to Section 527.6, 527.8, or 527.85 of the Code of Civil Procedure, a protective order as defined in Section 6218 of the Family Code, a protective order issued pursuant to Section 136.2 or 646.91 of this code, or a protective order issued pursuant to Section 15657.03 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, is guilty of a public offense, which shall be punishable by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that imprisonment and fine. (c) If probation is granted upon conviction of a violation of this section, the court shall impose probation consistent with Section 1203.097. (d) The Judicial Council shall provide notice on all [California] protective orders that the respondent is prohibited from owning, possessing, purchasing, receiving, or attempting to purchase or receive a firearm while the protective order is in effect. The order shall also state that the firearm shall be relinquished to the local law enforcement agency for that jurisdiction or sold to a licensed gun dealer, and that proof of surrender or sale shall be filed within a specified time of receipt of the order. The order shall state the penalties for a violation of the prohibition. The order shall also state on its face the expiration date for relinquishment.")

See also California Civil Code of Procedure 527.9 -- Relinquishment of firearms; persons subject to protective orders.  ("(a) A person subject to a temporary restraining order or injunction issued pursuant to Section 527.6, 527.8, or 527.85 or subject to a restraining order issued pursuant to Section 136.2 of the Penal Code, or Section 15657.03 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, shall relinquish the firearm pursuant to this section. (b) Upon the issuance of a [California] protective order against a person pursuant to subdivision (a), the court shall order that person to relinquish any firearm in that person's immediate possession or control, or subject to that person's immediate possession or control, within 24 hours of being served with the order [such as a California restraining order], either by surrendering the firearm to the control of local law enforcement officials, or by selling the firearm to a licensed gun dealer, as specified in Section 26500 of the Penal Code. A person ordered to relinquish any firearm pursuant to this subdivision shall file with the court a receipt showing the firearm was surrendered to the local law enforcement agency or sold to a licensed gun dealer within 48 hours after receiving the order. In the event that it is necessary to continue the date of any hearing due to a request for a relinquishment order pursuant to this section, the court shall ensure that all applicable [California] protective orders described in Section 6218 of the Family Code remain in effect or bifurcate the issues and grant the [California] permanent restraining order pending the date of the hearing. (c) A local law enforcement agency may charge the person subject to the order or injunction a fee for the storage of any firearm relinquished pursuant to this section. The fee shall not exceed the actual cost incurred by the local law enforcement agency for the storage of the firearm. For purposes of this subdivision, "actual cost" means expenses directly related to taking possession of a firearm, storing the firearm, and surrendering possession of the firearm to a licensed dealer as defined in Section 26500 of the Penal Code or to the person relinquishing the firearm. (d) The restraining order requiring a person to relinquish a firearm pursuant to subdivision (b) shall state on its face that the respondent is prohibited from owning, possessing, purchasing, or receiving a firearm while the protective order is in effect and that the firearm shall be relinquished to the local law enforcement agency for that jurisdiction or sold to a licensed gun dealer, and that proof of surrender or sale shall be filed with the court within a specified period of receipt of the order. The [California restraining] order shall also state on its face the expiration date for relinquishment. Nothing in this section shall limit a respondent's right under existing law to petition the court at a later date for modification of the order. (e) The restraining order requiring a person to relinquish a firearm pursuant to subdivision (b) shall prohibit the person from possessing or controlling any firearm for the duration of the order. At the expiration of the [California restraining] order, the local law enforcement agency shall return possession of any surrendered firearm to the respondent, within five days after the expiration of the relinquishment order, unless the local law enforcement agency determines that (1) the firearm has been stolen, (2) the respondent is prohibited from possessing a firearm because the respondent is in any prohibited class for the possession of firearms, as defined in Sections 29800 and 12021.1 of the Penal Code and Sections 8100 and 8103 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, or (3) another successive [California] restraining order is issued against the respondent under this section. If the local law enforcement agency determines that the respondent is the legal owner of any firearm deposited with the local law enforcement agency and is prohibited from possessing any firearm, the respondent shall be entitled to sell or transfer the firearm to a licensed dealer as defined in Section 26500 of the Penal Code. If the firearm has been stolen, the firearm shall be restored to the lawful owner upon his or her identification of the firearm and proof of ownership. (f) The court may, as part of the relinquishment order, grant an exemption from the relinquishment requirements of this section for a particular firearm if the respondent can show that a particular firearm is necessary as a condition of continued employment and that the current employer is unable to reassign the respondent to another position where a firearm is unnecessary. If an exemption is granted pursuant to this subdivision, the order shall provide that the firearm shall be in the physical possession of the respondent only during scheduled work hours and during travel to and from his or her place of employment. In any case involving a peace officer who as a condition of employment and whose personal safety depends on the ability to carry a firearm, a court may allow the peace officer to continue to carry a firearm, either on duty or off duty, if the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the officer does not pose a threat of harm. Prior to making this finding, the court shall require a mandatory psychological evaluation of the peace officer and may require the peace officer to enter into counseling or other remedial treatment program to deal with any propensity for domestic violence. (g) During the period of the relinquishment order, a respondent is entitled to make one sale of all firearms that are in the possession of a local law enforcement agency pursuant to this section. A licensed gun dealer, who presents a local law enforcement agency with a bill of sale indicating that all firearms owned by the respondent that are in the possession of the local law enforcement agency have been sold by the respondent to the licensed gun dealer, shall be given possession of those firearms, at the location where a respondent's firearms are stored, within five days of presenting the local law enforcement agency with a bill of sale.")

18Penal Code 646.9 PC California's Stalking Law.  ("(a) Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows or willfully and maliciously harasses another person and who makes a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear for his or her safety, or the safety of his or her immediate family is guilty of the crime of stalking, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison. (b) Any person who violates subdivision (a) when there is a [California] temporary restraining order, injunction, or any other court order in effect prohibiting the behavior described in subdivision (a) against the same party, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years. (c)(1) Every person who, after having been convicted of a felony under Section 273.5, 273.6, or 422, commits a violation of subdivision (a) shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or five years. (2) Every person who, after having been convicted of a felony under subdivision (a), commits a violation of this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or five years...")

19 See same.

20 California Penal Code 422 PC California's criminal threats law. ("Any person who willfully threatens to commit a crime which will result in death or great bodily injury to another person, with the specific intent that the statement, made verbally, in writing, or by means of an electronic communication device, is to be taken as a threat, even if there is no intent of actually carrying it out, which, on its face and under the circumstances in which it is made, is so unequivocal, unconditional, immediate, and specific as to convey to the person threatened, a gravity of purpose and an immediate prospect of execution of the threat, and thereby causes that person reasonably to be in sustained fear for his or her own safety or for his or her immediate family's safety, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison. For the purposes of this section, "immediate family" means any spouse, whether by marriage or not, parent, child, any person related by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree, or any other person who regularly resides in the household, or who, within the prior six months, regularly resided in the household. "Electronic communication device" includes, but is not limited to, telephones, cellular telephones, computers, video recorders, fax machines, or pagers. "Electronic communication" has the same meaning as the term defined in Subsection 12 of Section 2510 of Title 18 of the United States Code.")

21California Penal Code 368 PC -- Elder abuse.

22Penal Code 594 PC -- Vandalism; penalty.  ("(a) Every person who maliciously commits any of the following acts with respect to any real or personal property not his or her own, in cases other than those specified by state law, is guilty of vandalism: (1) Defaces with graffiti or other inscribed material. (2) Damages. (3) Destroys. Whenever a person violates this subdivision with respect to real property, vehicles, signs, fixtures, furnishings, or property belonging to any public entity, as defined by Section 811.2 of the Government Code, or the federal government, it shall be a permissive inference that the person neither owned the property nor had the permission of the owner to deface, damage, or destroy the property. (b)(1) If the amount of defacement, damage, or destruction is four hundred dollars ($400) or more, vandalism is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison or in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or if the amount of defacement, damage, or destruction is ten thousand dollars ($10,000) or more, by a fine of not more than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment. (2)(A) If the amount of defacement, damage, or destruction is less than four hundred dollars ($400), vandalism is punishable by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment. (B) If the amount of defacement, damage, or destruction is less than four hundred dollars ($400), and the defendant has been previously convicted of vandalism or affixing graffiti or other inscribed material under Section 594, 594.3, 594.4, 640.5, 640.6, or 640.7, vandalism is punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars ($5,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment...")

23 Penal Code 166 PC -- Contempt of court; conduct constituting.  ("(a) Except as provided in subdivisions (b), (c), and (d), every person guilty of any contempt of court, of any of the following kinds, is guilty of a misdemeanor: (1) Disorderly, contemptuous, or insolent behavior committed during the sitting of any court of justice, in the immediate view and presence of the court, and directly tending to interrupt its proceedings or to impair the respect due to its authority. (2) Behavior as specified in paragraph (1) committed in the presence of any referee, while actually engaged in any trial or hearing, pursuant to the order of any court, or in the presence of any jury while actually sitting for the trial of a cause, or upon any inquest or other proceedings authorized by law. (3) Any breach of the peace, noise, or other disturbance directly tending to interrupt the proceedings of any court. (4) Willful disobedience of the terms as written of any process or court order or out-of-state court order, lawfully issued by any court, including orders pending trial. (5) Resistance willfully offered by any person to the lawful order or process of any court. (6) The contumacious and unlawful refusal of any person to be sworn as a witness or, when so sworn, the like refusal to answer any material question. (7) The publication of a false or grossly inaccurate report of the proceedings of any court. (8) Presenting to any court having power to pass sentence upon any prisoner under conviction, or to any member of the court, any affidavit or testimony or representation of any kind, verbal or written, in aggravation or mitigation of the punishment to be imposed upon the prisoner, except as provided in this code. (9) Willful disobedience of the terms of any injunction that restrains the activities of a criminal street gang or any of its members, lawfully issued by any court [like a California protective order], including an order pending trial. (b)(1) Any person who is guilty of contempt of court under paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) by willfully contacting a victim by telephone or mail, or directly, and who has been previously convicted of a violation of Section 646.9 shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, by a fine of five thousand dollars ($5,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment. (2) For the purposes of sentencing under this subdivision, each contact shall constitute a separate violation of this subdivision. (3) The present incarceration of a person who makes contact with a victim in violation of paragraph (1) is not a defense to a violation of this subdivision. (c)(1) Notwithstanding paragraph (4) of subdivision (a), any willful and knowing violation of any [California] protective order or stay-away court order issued pursuant to Section 136.2, in a pending criminal proceeding involving domestic violence, as defined in Section 13700, or issued as a condition of probation after a conviction in a criminal proceeding involving domestic violence, as defined in Section 13700, or elder or dependent adult abuse, as defined in Section 368, or that is an order described in paragraph (3), shall constitute contempt of court, a misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that imprisonment and fine. (2) If a violation of paragraph (1) results in a physical injury, the person shall be imprisoned in a county jail for at least 48 hours, whether a fine or imprisonment is imposed, or the sentence is suspended. (3) Paragraphs (1) and (2) apply to the following court orders: (A) Any order issued pursuant to Section 6320 or 6389 of the Family Code. (B) An order excluding one party from the family dwelling or from the dwelling of the other. (C) An order enjoining a party from specified behavior that the court determined was necessary to effectuate the orders described in paragraph (1). (4) A second or subsequent conviction for a violation of any order described in paragraph (1) occurring within seven years of a prior conviction for a violation of any of those orders and involving an act of violence or "a credible threat" of violence, as provided in subdivisions (c) and (d) of Section 139, is punishable by imprisonment in a county jail not to exceed one year, or in the state prison for 16 months or two or three years. (5) The prosecuting agency of each county shall have the primary responsibility for the enforcement of the orders described in paragraph (1). (d)(1) A person who owns, possesses, purchases, or receives a firearm knowing he or she is prohibited from doing so by the provisions of a [California] protective order as defined in Section 136.2 of this code, Section 6218 of the Family Code, or Section 527.6 or 527.8 of the Code of Civil Procedure, shall be punished under the provisions of subdivision (g) of Section 29800. (2) A person subject to a protective order described in paragraph (1) shall not be prosecuted under this section for owning, possessing, purchasing, or receiving a firearm to the extent that firearm is granted an exemption pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 6389 of the Family Code. (e)(1) If probation is granted upon conviction of a violation of subdivision (c), the court shall impose probation consistent with Section 1203.097 of the Penal Code. (2) If probation is granted upon conviction of a violation of subdivision (c), the conditions of probation may include, in lieu of a fine, one or both of the following requirements: (A) That the defendant make payments to a battered women's shelter, up to a maximum of one thousand dollars ($1,000). (B) That the defendant provide restitution to reimburse the victim for reasonable costs of counseling and other reasonable expenses that the court finds are the direct result of the defendant's offense. (3) For any order to pay a fine, make payments to a battered women's shelter, or pay restitution as a condition of probation under this subdivision or subdivision (c), the court shall make a determination of the defendant's ability to pay. In no event shall any order to make payments to a battered women's shelter be made if it would impair the ability of the defendant to pay direct restitution to the victim or court-ordered child support. (4) If the injury to a married person is caused in whole or in part by the criminal acts of his or her spouse in violation of subdivision (c), the community property may not be used to discharge the liability of the offending spouse for restitution to the injured spouse required by Section 1203.04, as operative on or before August 2, 1995, or Section 1202.4, or to a shelter for costs with regard to the injured spouse and dependents required by this subdivision, until all separate property of the offending spouse is exhausted. (5) Any person violating any order described in subdivision (c) may be punished for any substantive offenses described under Section 136.1 or 646.9. No finding of contempt shall be a bar to prosecution for a violation of Section 136.1 or 646.9. However, any person held in contempt for a violation of subdivision (c) shall be entitled to credit for any punishment imposed as a result of that violation against any sentence imposed upon conviction of an offense described in Section 136.1 or 646.9. Any conviction or acquittal for any substantive offense under Section 136.1 or 646.9 shall be a bar to a subsequent punishment for contempt arising out of the same act.")

24 Please feel free to contact our Las Vegas Nevada criminal defense attorneys Michael Becker and Mike Castillo for any questions relating to Nevada's laws involving restraining or protective orders. Our Nevada law offices are located in Reno and Las Vegas.

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