Nevada law recognizes two forms of child custody in a divorce case: physical custody and legal custody. If a parent has physical custody, the child lives with the parent at least some of the time. If the parent has legal custody, the parent has the right to make important decisions about a child's upbringing.
The court can award sole or shared custody to either or both parents. A parent does not need physical custody in order to share legal custody.
A parent who has custody of a child is sometimes called a "custodial" parent. A parent who does not have custody of a child is a "non-custodial" parent.
To help you better understand child custody laws in Nevada, our Las Vegas family law attorneys discuss, below:
- 1. What is physical custody of a child?
- 2. What is legal custody of a child?
- 3. How is child custody determined in Nevada?
- 3.1. Mediation
- 3.2. How does a judge award custody?
- 3.3. Do mothers have greater custody rights than fathers?
- 4. What custody rights do unmarried parents have?
- 5. Child custody and same sex parents
- 6. Can I get custody if I am not the child's parent?
- 7. If I am not awarded custody, will I still have visitation rights?
- 8. How do I get a child custody order modified in Las Vegas?
- 9. Nevada child custody laws and moving in or out of state
- 10. What is the penalty for violating a Nevada child custody order?
You may also wish to review our articles on Visitation Rights in Nevada, Father's Rights in Nevada, and How a Court Determines Child Support in a Nevada Divorce.
Physical child custody refers to the physical living arrangement between parent and child.
If a child physically resides with a parent more than 60% of the time, that parent has primary physical custody.
If the child spends at least 40% of his or her time with each parent, the parents share joint physical custody of the child.
Legal custody refers to the right of a parent to make important decisions about a child's upbringing. This can include:
- What school a child attends,
- What religion the child practices, and
- What medical treatments a child receives.
Usually a parent with physical custody of a child will at least share legal custody. But the court may award joint legal custody to a parent who does not share joint physical custody.1
Child custody in Nevada is determined in one of two ways:
- By mutual agreement of the parents, or
- By a court's determination.
Until the court finalizes the custody arrangement, each parent automatically has joint legal custody and joint physical custody of the child.2
The court will presume joint custody is in the best interest of the child if:
- The parents have agreed to joint custody, or
- Each parent has tried to establish a meaningful relationship with the child -- even if the other parent has frustrated those efforts.3
Parents in a custody dispute in Las Vegas must attend mediation. During mediation, the parents will try to agree on a custody arrangement.
If the parents cannot agree, a judge will determine custody.
The sole consideration of a court is the best interest of the child in Nevada.4
Factors a judge considers when determining the best interests of a child include (without limitation):
- Any history of child neglect or abuse by a parent,
- Any incidents of domestic abuse on the part of a parent,
- The wishes of the child,
- The ability of the child to maintain relationships with siblings,
- The level of conflict between the parents,
- The ability of the parents to cooperate to meet the needs of the child,
- The mental and physical health of the parents,
- The physical and emotional needs of the child, and
- The child's relationship with each parent.5
The court may order an investigation into whether physical custody is appropriate.6
Judges may not inherently favor a mother over a father when making a custody determination in Nevada.
The best interests of the child are the only thing that matters. If it is in the child's best interests, the court may grant physical custody to the parties jointly.7
Once a judge has made the determination, it is binding on the parents.
Under Nevada NRS 126 marital status does not determine who is a parent.8 Rather, a parent and child relationship exists when:
- Someone has given birth to the child (other than pursuant to an agreement to be a surrogate),
- The person has legally adopted the child,
- Unmarried or same sex people have signed a co-parenting agreement,
- The child was born for the parent using a surrogate, or
- A man donated sperm with the intention of being the parent of the resulting child.9
The Nevada Supreme Court has held that same sex parents can have an enforceable parent / child relationship.10
An agreement to be parents is all that matters. What does not matter is:
- The gender of the parents, or
- A biological relationship between parent and child.
Example: Mark and Jacob are a male couple that wants to have a child. Mark will provide his sperm. Jacob's sister, Mary, will donate her eggs. The baby will be carried by Alice, a hired surrogate.
If there was no written agreement, a court might assume that Alice was the baby's mother. But Mark, Jacob, Mary and Alice sign a contract setting forth the relationship. Under the terms of the agreement, Mark and Jacob are the parents. Neither Mary nor Alice has any parenting rights.
You can learn more about legal same-sex relationships in our article on Same-Sex Marriage and Domestic Partnerships in Nevada.
A court may award custody to someone other the child's parent only when:
- Awarding custody to a parent would be detrimental to the child, and
- Awarding custody to a non-parent is necessary for the child's best interests.11
A judge may grant visitation rights to a parent who does not have custody. It can do so by court order.
The order must set forth the time and terms of the visits. The terms must be specific enough so that:
- A court can enforce the rights of the parents, and
- The order serves the best interest of the child.12
A court may also order “make-up” visits if a parent having custody wrongfully deprives the other parent of visitation rights,.13
Either parent may petition the court to modify a custody order.14 Reasons for modifying a custody order include:
- A parent can no longer afford support due to changed circumstances (such as losing a job),
- The child has new special needs (such as required medical care), or
- The parent with custody wants to move out of state.
A parent with primary physical custody can move with a child only after:
- Getting consent from the other parent, or
- Getting the consent of the court.15
This rule applies to:
- All moves out of state, and
- Moves within Nevada that would impair the other parent's meaningful relationship with the child.
There are consequences if a non-custodial parent does not agree to a reasonable request to move. The court can order that parent to pay the other parent's attorney's fees if:
- The parent without custody refuses the request without reasonable grounds; or
- A parent withholds consent to harass the parent who has custody.
A custodial parent desiring to move out of Nevada must prove to the court that:
- There is a sensible, good-faith reason for the move,
- The move is not intended to deprive the non-relocating parent of his or her parenting time,
- The best interests of the child favor the relocation, and
- The move will benefit both the child and relocating parent.16
The court can also consider whether the other parent will be able to maintain a meaningful relationship with the child.17
It is a Nevada category D felony to violate a child custody order. Violations of a child custody order in Nevada include:
- Willfully detaining, concealing or removing a child from a parent's lawful custody;
- Willfully depriving a parent of a right of visitation; or
- Removing the child from court's jurisdiction without the consent of the court or the other parent.18
Violation of a custody order in Nevada can be punished by:
- 1-4 years in Nevada state prison, and/or
- A fine of up to $5,000.19
Need help with child custody in Las Vegas? Call us for a free consultation.
At the Las Vegas Defense Group, we know that maintaining a relationship is the most important thing you can do for your child.
If you are fighting for custody of your child we invite you to contact us for a free consultation.
Our Las Vegas family lawyers will fight proactively to do what is best for you and your child.
Call us at 702-DEFENSE (702-333-3673) or complete the form on this page to schedule your FREE consultation with a caring Nevada family lawyer.
- NRS 125C.002 (2).
- NRS 125C.0015 (2).
- NRS 125C.002 (1) and NRS 125C.0025 (1).
- NRS 125C.0035.
- NRS 125C.0035 (4).
- NRS 125C.0025 (2).
- NRS 125C.0035.
- NRS 125C.0015 (1).
- NRS 126.041; NRS 126.051; NRS 126.680.
- St. Mary v. Damon, 129 Nev. App. Op. 68 (2013).
- NRS 125C.004.
- NRS 125C.010.
- NRS 125C.020.
- NRS 125C.0045.
- NRS 125C.006; NRS 125C.0065.
- NRS 125C.007 (1).
- NRS 125C.007 (2).
- NRS 125C.0045 (6); NRS 125C.0075; NRS 200.359.
- NRS 193.130 (2)(d).