Nevada "Death Penalty" Laws

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Nevada is one of 31 states which permit capital punishment, also called the death penalty. It is the harshest punishment in Nevada criminal law.

Nevada courts may impose the death penalty only first-degree murder cases where:

  • there is at least one aggravating circumstance, and
  • the aggravated circumstances are not outweighed by any mitigating factors.

The one form of capital punishment Nevada allows is lethal injection.

It typically takes years if not decades for a death row inmate to be executed. People prosecuted for capital murder may be able to get acquitted at trial or have their charge reduced through a plea bargain.

In this article, our Las Vegas death penalty attorneys answer frequently-asked-questions about when, where, how and why capital punishment occurs in Nevada. Click on a topic to jump to that section:

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First-degree murder convicts may be sentenced to death in Nevada.

1. Does Nevada have the death penalty?

Yes. Like it sounds, capital punishment is where a convicted defendant is put to death as punishment for the crime.  The death penalty in Nevada may be imposed only in certain first-degree murder cases...

First-degree murder is a deliberate and premeditated killing. Under Nevada's felony murder rule, first-degree murder also comprises homicides committed in the commission of certain felonies such as rape, robbery, burglary or kidnapping.

Also see our article on murder by drugs in Nevada (NRS 453.333).1

2. When does someone get sentenced to death in Nevada?

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If a jury returns a guilty verdict in a Nevada first-degree murder trial, the case moves into the sentencing phase. The sentencing hearing usually occurs several weeks after the trial ends. This is to give defense counsel time to gather witnesses and craft a case against the death penalty.

A Nevada sentencing hearing is similar to a trial, but the only thing at issue is which punishment to impose. In first-degree murder cases, the jury decides between imposing one of the following sentences:

  • Death, or
  • Life in Nevada State Prison without the possibility of parole, or
  • Life in prison with the possibility of parole after twenty (20) years, or
  • Fifty (50) years in prison with the possibility of parole after twenty (20) years2

3. Who gets the death penalty in Nevada?

A Nevada jury may hand down the death sentence to a defendant convicted of first-degree murder only if:

  • the jury finds there is at least one (1) aggravating circumstance, and
  • the jury finds that any mitigating circumstances do not outweigh the aggravating circumstance(s)

3.1. Aggravating circumstances

Aggravating circumstances in Nevada first-degree murder cases can be any of the following:

  • The defendant was currently under a sentence of imprisonment.
  • The defendant has previously been convicted of another murder or a violent felony.
  • The defendant knowingly created a risk of death to other people.
  • The defendant committed the murder in the commission of robbery, first-degree arson, burglary, invasion of the home, or first-degree kidnapping AND the defendant deliberately meant to kill or knew that lethal force was being used.
  • The defendant committed the murder to prevent an arrest or to escape custody.
  • The defendant committed the murder in exchange for money (or something of monetary value).
  • The victim was a peace officer or firefighter engaged in their official duties, and the defendant knew (or should have known) this.
  • The defendant tortured or mutilated the victim.
  • The defendant killed more than one person at random.
  • The victim was less than fourteen (14) years old.
  • The murder was a hate crime based on race, religion, national origin, disability, gender identity or expression, or sexual orientation.
  • The defendant raped or attempted to rape the victim.
  • The murder took place on school property or at a school activity, and the defendant intended to create a great risk of death or harm to more than one person.
  • The murder was an act of terrorism.3

3.2. Mitigating circumstances

In contrast, mitigating circumstances in Nevada first-degree murder cases are much more open-ended. They can be any fact or testimony that makes the defendant seem less deserving of the death penalty. Some examples are:

Mitigating factors are crucial in avoiding the death penalty in Nevada.
  • The defendant had no significant criminal history.
  • The defendant committed the murder under extreme mental or emotional disturbance.
  • The defendant acted under duress or domination of another person.
  • The victim consented to or participated in the act that led to his/her death.
  • The murder was committed by a person other than the defendant, and the defendant was an accomplice who played a minor role.
  • The defendant was young at the time of the murder.
  • The defendant had an abusive and/or underprivileged childhood.
  • The defendant had done many positive things for the community.

It is typical for friends and family of the defendant to testify at the sentencing hearing or write letters to the judge about the defendant's virtues and asking for leniency.4

4. How long does someone stay on death row in Nevada?

It varies, but it usually takes several years and sometimes decades. This is because there are so many different court procedures that happen first. Learn more in the next question.

5. How do I fight a death sentence in Nevada?

Fighting a capital punishment sentence is a very lengthy and complex process in Nevada. It may include such procedures as motions for a new trial, appealing to the Nevada Supreme Court and U.S. Supreme Court, filing a petition of habeas corpus, and requesting clemency from the Nevada Board of Pardons.

Note that just because a person is charged with murder does not mean he/she will be convicted. It may be possible to win an acquittal at trial or to persuade the prosecutor to reduce the charges.

6. Who is exempt from the death penalty in Nevada?

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Children may not be sentenced to death in Nevada.

Nevada may not execute:

  • people who were under eighteen (18) years old at the time of the murder,5 and
  • people who are mentally retarded6

7. How is the death penalty done in Nevada?

Lethal injection is currently the sole method of execution.7

The lethal injection process begins when the inmate is strapped to a gurney and receives an IV. The first substance injected is an anesthetic to make the inmate unconscious. The second substance is paralytic, which paralyzes the diaphragm. The final injection of potassium chloride causes cardiac arrest.8

Now and for the foreseeable future, no capital punishments are being performed in Nevada because the makers of the drug Alvogen and Sandoz Inc. are objecting to their anesthetic and paralytic products being used for execution.9

8. Where is the death penalty done in Nevada?

Nevada's one execution chamber is located at Ely State Prison. Death Row is located there as well.10

Call a Nevada criminal defense attorney...

If you would like to speak with our Las Vegas criminal defense attorneys for free about your case, call 702-DEFENSE (702-333-3673). We may be able to negotiate your charges down to lesser offenses or a full dismissal. And if you wish we are always ready to go to trial in your defense.

For information about California death penalty laws, go to our article on California death penalty laws.

For information about Colorado death penalty laws, go to our article on Colorado death penalty laws.

Legal References:

  1. NRS 200.030.
  2. Id.
  3. NRS 200.033.
  4. NRS 200.035; see Coldwell v. State, 112 Nev. 807, 919 P.2d 403 (1996).
  5. NRS 176.025.
  6. NRS 200.030; Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002).
  7. NRS 176.355; see also David Ferrara, "Future of executions in Nevada remains in question", Las Vegas Review-Journal (December 27, 2019).
  8. Nevada pursues death chamber, controversial drug by Sandra Chereb, Las Vegas Review-Journal (July 13, 2015).
  9. David Montero, Nevada execution halted after drug company sues to stop it, L.A. Times (July 11, 2018).
  10. Will Nevada death chamber be a million-dollar boondoggle? by Darcy Spears, KTNV-13 ABC (March 30, 2017).

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