Speed Contests in California
Vehicle Code 23109(a) VC

California Vehicle Code 23109(a) makes it a crime to willfully participate in a speed contest.

A “speed contest” is defined as a race of your vehicle against another car, or against a clock or other timing device.2

Examples

Here are some examples of people who could end up charged under Vehicle Code 23109 VC:

  • Two groups of friends who are caravanning to a party in two separate cars start playfully competing to see which car will get there faster. This escalates to a situation where both drivers are driving above the speed limit and weaving rapidly through lanes.
  • A teenage boy who has just been given his first car as a birthday present makes a bet with his friend that he can travel a 10-mile stretch of highway in six minutes or less. The friend, who is riding in the passenger seat of the car, uses his cell phone timer to test this claim.
23109_speedometer-optimized
Vehicle Code 23109(a) VC covers the crime of "speed contests."

Penalties

Engaging in a speed contest is a misdemeanor in California law.3

For a first conviction for a “speed contest” in California, the penalties may include at least twenty-four (24) hours and no more than ninety (90) days in county jail, and/or fine of at least three hundred fifty-five dollars ($355) and no more than one thousand dollars ($1,000).4

And the potential penalties will increase if this is not your first conviction for a speed contest, and/or if anyone is injured as a result of the speed contest.5

In fact, this offense becomes a California wobbler—a crime that may be charged as a misdemeanor or a felony—if someone suffers serious bodily injury as a result of the contest.6

Juvenile defendants charged under VC 23109(a) will be charged in California's juvenile court system.

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Many defendants in speed contest cases are juveniles.

Legal defenses

A conviction for California Vehicle Code 23109(a) speed contests can put a black mark on the record of someone who has no other criminal history.

With the help of an experienced criminal defense attorney, you may be able to use one or more of the following legal defenses to avoid a conviction for this offense:

  • You did not act “willfully”; and/or
  • There is insufficient evidence that your behavior met the definition of a “speed contest."

In order to help you better understand the crime of Vehicle Code 23109(a) VC speed contests in California, our California criminal defense attorneys will address the following:

1. Legal Definition of a Speed Contest in California

2. Penalties for Vehicle Code 23109(a) VC

2.1. Speed contest basic penalties
2.2. Enhanced speed contest penalties (prior conviction; bodily injury)
2.3. Vehicle impoundment

3. Legal Defenses to VC 23109(a) Speed Contest Charges

4. Vehicle Code 23109(a) Speed Contests and Related Offenses

4.1. VC 23109(c) exhibition of speed
4.2. Reckless driving
4.3. California evading an officer laws

If, after reading this article, you would like more information, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group.

1. Legal Definition of a Speed Contest in California

The legal definition of a “speed contest” under Vehicle Code 23109(a) consists of the following “elements of the crime”:

  1. You drove a motor vehicle on a highway; and
  2. While doing so, you willfully engaged in a speed contest.7

Let's break down these elements in order to better understand their meaning:

Drove in a motor vehicle on a highway

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"Motor vehicle" under Vehicle Code 23109(a) includes both cars and trucks.

A “motor vehicle” includes any of the following:

  • A passenger vehicle (such as a car or pickup truck);
  • A motorcycle;
  • A bus or school bus;
  • A commercial vehicle; and
  • A truck tractor.8

Example: Marcus and Jayden, two 14-year-old boys, engage in a bicycle race on a busy arterial with a bicycle lane.

They are frequently traveling side-by-side, leading one of them to veer out of the bike lane into the regular traffic lanes. And they ride up onto the sidewalk at intersections where there are cars in the bike lane waiting to turn right.

Marcus and Jayden are engaging in a dangerous speed contest. But because they are on bicycles rather than in motor vehicles, they are not guilty of VC 23109.

A “highway” for purposes of the California Vehicle Code means any area that is publicly maintained and open to the public for purposes of vehicular travel. It includes pretty much all streets.9

But it does not include property that is maintained by private entities and/or not open to the public for vehicle travel.

Example: Charlotte is an avid motorcyclist whose husband owns a car dealership. Because of recent changes in his business, her husband currently has a large part of his vehicle storage lot sitting empty.

Charlotte and several biker friends uses her husband's empty lot to race their motorcycles on a short course.

Charlotte and her friends cannot be charged under California's speed contest law because her husband's lot does not count as a “highway.”

23109_residential_20street-optimized
For purposes of California's speed contests law, "highway" means normal residential or commercial streets as well as freeways.

Willfully

To do something “willfully” means to do it willingly or on purpose. You don't need to intend to:

  • Break the law;
  • Hurt someone else; or
  • Gain any advantage.10

Example: Adolfo is a first-generation college student trying hard to fit in with his new peers. Several of his new friends are into “street racing”—racing cars on public streets late at night.

Adolfo has no interest in street racing and is uncomfortable with the safety risks it poses. But his friends assure him (wrongly) that it is legal if it is done late at night

So he agrees to help with a street race by timing the cars' speeds and looking out for unrelated cars.

Adolfo did not intend to break the law or cause anyone any harm; he did not even really want to be involved with the race. But he made the choice to participate and so did so “willfully.”

Thus, Adolfo can be charged with “aiding and abetting” a speed contest.11

A “speed contest”

A speed contest is any race by a motor vehicle against either

  • another motor vehicle, or
  • a clock or other timing device.12

Example: Don has been bragging to his friends about the acceleration on his new car. They have expressed disbelief.

So Don invites several of his friends to his street and hands one of his friends a stopwatch. He asks the friend to time him to see how long it takes him to get to the end of the block.

This counts as a “speed contest” even though there is no other car involved—because Don is racing against the stopwatch.

23109_stopwatch-optimized
A speed contest can involve "racing" against a stopwatch or other timing device.

But it does NOT include an event where participants measure the amount of time it takes for a vehicle to cover a given route, IF:

  1. The route is more than twenty (20) miles, and
  2. The vehicle does not exceed the speed limit during the event.13

2. Penalties for Vehicle Code 23109(a) VC

 2.1. Speed contest basic penalties

In most cases, a speed contest charge under Vehicle Code 23109(a) VC will be a misdemeanor. It may carry the following potential penalties:

  • Misdemeanor (summary) probation;
  • A county jail sentence of at least twenty-four (24) hours and no more than ninety (90) days;
  • A fine of at least three hundred fifty-five dollars ($355) and no more than one thousand dollars ($1,000);
  • Forty (40) hours of community service; and/or
  • The suspension or restriction of your driver's license for anywhere from ninety (90) days to six (6) months.14

A “restriction” of your driver's license would mean that you are permitted to drive only for the purposes of getting to/from and performing your job.15

License_suspended-optimized
A suspended or restricted license can be one of the most inconvenient penalties for a VC 23109(a) speed contests conviction.

And if you violate those restrictions—or drive at all while your license is suspended—then you could face separate charges for Vehicle Code 14601 VC driving on a suspended license.

 2.2. Enhanced speed contest penalties (prior conviction; bodily injury)

The penalties for engaging in a speed contest increase if either (or both) of the following is true:

  1. You have one or more prior convictions for a speed contest that occurred within five (5) years of the violation you are currently charged with; or
  2. The speed contest was a proximate cause of bodily injury to anyone other than the driver.16

Prior speed contest conviction

If you have a prior conviction for a speed contest that occurred within five (5) years of this alleged speed contest, then your misdemeanor penalties increase to:

  • At least four (4) days and up to six (6) months in county jail;
  • A fine of between five hundred dollars ($500) and one thousand dollars ($1,000); and
  • A mandatory suspension or restriction of your driver's license for six (6) months.17

Plus, if this is your second or subsequent conviction for a speed contest within a 5-year-period and you are sentenced to misdemeanor probation, then you will still be required to serve at least forty-eight (48) hours in county jail as a condition of your probation.18

Speed contest causing injury

If the speed contest proximately caused bodily injury to another person, then the penalties increase to:

  • At least thirty (30) days and no more than six (6) months in county jail; and/or
  • A fine of between five hundred dollars ($500) and one thousand dollars ($1,000).19

And if the speed contest proximately caused serious bodily injury to another person, the crime becomes what is known as a “wobbler.” This is an offense that may be charged as either a misdemeanor or a California felony, at the prosecutor's discretion.20

If it is charged as a misdemeanor, a speed contest causing serious bodily injury is punished by thirty (30) days to one (1) year in county jail, and/or a fine of between five hundred dollars ($500) and one thousand dollars ($1,000).21

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The penalties for a speed contest increase if someone is injured.

Charged as a felony, a speed contest causing serious bodily injury carries a sentence of sixteen (16) months, two (2) years or three (3) years—and a potential fine of up to ten thousand dollars ($10,000).22

“Serious bodily injury” is a slightly lesser standard than the standard of “great bodily injury/harm” that plays a role in other California criminal law.

For purposes of Vehicle Code 23109 VC, serious bodily injury means a serious impairment of physical condition, including (but not limited to):

  • Loss of consciousness;
  • Concussion;
  • Bone fracture;
  • Protracted loss or impairment of function of any bodily member or organ;
  • A wound requiring extensive suturing; and
  • Serious disfigurement.23
 2.3. Vehicle impoundment

When a person is arrested for a speed contest, the arresting officer has the right to seize the vehicle used to commit the alleged offense—and impound it for up to thirty (30) days.24

Car-at-night-parked-with-lights-on
If you are arrested for Vehicle Code 23109 VC, there is a good chance your car will be impounded.

If this occurs, then the vehicle will be released before the end of the impoundment period only if one of the following is true:

  1. The vehicle was stolen (in which case the defendant in the speed contest case may also face charges for California grand theft auto);
  2. The person charged under VC 23109 was not authorized to operate the vehicle by its owner;
  3. The owner of the car was not a driver or passenger in the car when the alleged speed contest occurred, or was unaware that the driver was using the car to engage in these activities;
  4. The car was a rental car; and/or
  5. The prosecutor chooses not to file Vehicle Code 23109(a) charges, or those charges are dismissed.25

Example: Bruce and Lila are teenage siblings. Unbeknownst to Bruce, Lila sneaks out of the house one night in Bruce's car and uses it to participate in a street race.

When Lila and her fellow racers are arrested for VC 23109(a) speed contests Bruce's car is seized and impounded.

But Bruce should be able to get his car back if he can convince an official at an impoundment hearing that he had not given Lila permission to take his car that night.

3. Legal Defenses to VC 23109(a) Speed Contest Charges

A conviction for a speed contest can tarnish an otherwise clean criminal record, or affect your ability to drive your car to earn a living or maintain a normal life.

It is worth the investment of time and money to fight these charges with the help of an experienced criminal defense attorney. The most common legal defenses to Vehicle Code 23109(a) VC charges include:

Your behavior was not “willful”

Car-speeding-on-highway-at-night
You are only guilty under California Vehicle Code 23109 if you acted "willfully."

You cannot be convicted of a speed contest unless the prosecutor can prove that you acted “willfully.”26

Maybe you have a physical or medical condition that led you to drive at a high speed without realizing you were doing so. (This happens especially frequently with elderly drivers.)

Or maybe you feared for your safety for whatever reason, and engaged in fast driving that looked like a speed contest because of that.

If this is the case, your attorney can help you gather evidence and present your side of the story in order to make it clear that you are not guilty of VC 23109(a).

There is insufficient evidence that your behavior met the definition of a speed contest 

The line between speed contests and garden-variety speeding can be blurry.

Sometimes California Highway Patrol or police officers will try to turn a speeding case into a Vehicle Code 23109(a) VC case in order to increase their arrest numbers, or out of personal malice toward a particular arrestee.

Flashing-police-car-lights
Sometimes Vehicle Code 23109 VC charges arise out of a case of police misconduct or racial profiling.

In the worst cases, police misconduct and/or racial profiling might be occurring.

If you are wrongly—and unjustly—accused of engaging in a speed contest, you can successfully argue to the prosecutor or a jury that there is not enough evidence that you are guilty.

5. Vehicle Code 23109(a) Speed Contests and Related Offenses

There are several related California offenses that are commonly charged along with, or instead of, speed contests. These include:

5.1. VC 23109(c) exhibition of speed

Vehicle Code 23109(c) VC describes the closely related crime of "exhibition of speed." Exhibition of speed consists of accelerating or driving a vehicle at a dangerous speed, in order to show off for or make an impression on other people.27

VC 23109(c) exhibition of speed can be charged on its own, as either a misdemeanor or an infraction.28 But it is also a very common California DUI plea bargain.

According to Los Angeles DUI defense attorney John Murray29:

“It is very common for defendants charged with California DUI to negotiate the charges down to exhibition of speed as part of the California DUI plea bargaining process. The potential penalties for 'speed ex,' unlike those for speed contests, do not include a driver's license suspension or restriction--and so are a very attractive alternative to DUI penalties.”

5.2. Reckless driving

California “dry reckless”, a common California DUI plea bargain, is the crime of driving with willful and wanton disregard for the safety of other people or their property.30

(It is distinguished from California “wet reckless” in that the latter is always a plea bargain from California DUI charges and is never charged separately.31)

Reckless driving is a misdemeanor carrying at least five (5) and no more than ninety (90) days in county jail, and/or a fine of $145-$1,000.32

Depending on the circumstances, a defendant might be charged with both speed contests and reckless driving.

5.3. California evading an officer laws

Finally, if you are accused of evading a law enforcement officer in connection with a speed contest, then you may also face charges for Vehicle Code 2800.1 misdemeanor evading an officer, or Vehicle Code 2800.2 felony reckless evading.

Misdemeanor evading an officer occurs when someone intentionally flees from a clearly marked law enforcement vehicle in their car.33

Felony reckless evading occurs when they drive recklessly while doing so.34

Even misdemeanor evading an officer carries harsher penalties (up to one (1) year in county jail) than a speed contest.35 For that reason, it is sometimes smart to try to bargain an evading an officer charge down to VC 23109(a) speed contests.

Call us for help…

Help-support-call-us

For questions about Vehicle Code 23109(a) speed contests or to discuss your case confidentially with one of our California criminal defense attorneys, do not hesitate to contact us at Shouse Law Group.

We have local criminal law offices in and around Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura, San Jose, Oakland, the San Francisco Bay area, and several nearby cities.

For more information on drag racing and unauthorized speed contests in Nevada, please see our page on “drag racing” and unauthorized speed contests in Nevada.

Legal References:



1 Vehicle Code 23109 VC – Speed contests. (“(a) A person shall not engage in a motor vehicle speed contest on a highway. As used in this section, a motor vehicle speed contest includes a motor vehicle race against another vehicle, a clock, or other timing device. For purposes of this section, an event in which the time to cover a prescribed route of more than 20 miles is measured, but where the vehicle does not exceed the speed limits, is not a speed contest. (b) A person shall not aid or abet in any motor vehicle speed contest on any highway. . . . (d) A person shall not, for the purpose of facilitating or aiding or as an incident to any motor vehicle speed contest or exhibition upon a highway, in any manner obstruct or place a barricade or obstruction or assist or participate in placing a barricade or obstruction upon any highway.”)

2 Same.

3 Vehicle Code 23109 VC – Speed contests. (“(e)(1) A person convicted of a violation of subdivision (a) shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than 24 hours nor more than 90 days or by a fine of not less than three hundred fifty-five dollars ($355) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment. That person shall also be required to perform 40 hours of community service. The court may order the privilege to operate a motor vehicle suspended for 90 days to six months, as provided in paragraph (8) of subdivision (a) of Section 13352. The person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle may be restricted for 90 days to six months to necessary travel to and from that person's place of employment and, if driving a motor vehicle is necessary to perform the duties of the person's employment, restricted to driving in that person's scope of employment. This subdivision does not interfere with the court's power to grant probation in a suitable case.”)

4 Same.

5 Vehicle Code 23109 VC – Speed contests. (“(e) . . . (2) If a person is convicted of a violation of subdivision (a) and that violation proximately causes bodily injury to a person other than the driver, the person convicted shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than 30 days nor more than six months or by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars ($500) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment. (f) (1) If a person is convicted of a violation of subdivision (a) for an offense that occurred within five years of the date of a prior offense that resulted in a conviction of a violation of subdivision (a), that person shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than four days nor more than six months, and by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars ($500) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000). (2) If the perpetration of the most recent offense within the five-year period described in paragraph (1) proximately causes bodily injury to a person other than the driver, a person convicted of that second violation shall be imprisoned in a county jail for not less than 30 days nor more than six months and by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars ($500) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000). (3) If the perpetration of the most recent offense within the five-year period described in paragraph (1) proximately causes serious bodily injury, as defined in paragraph (4) of subdivision (f) of Section 243 of the Penal Code, to a person other than the driver, a person convicted of that second violation shall be imprisoned in the state prison, or in a county jail for not less than 30 days nor more than one year, and by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars ($500) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000). (4) The court shall order the privilege to operate a motor vehicle of a person convicted under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) suspended for a period of six months, as provided in paragraph (9) of subdivision (a) of Section 13352. In lieu of the suspension, the person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle may be restricted for six months to necessary travel to and from that person's place of employment and, if driving a motor vehicle is necessary to perform the duties of the person's employment, restricted to driving in that person's scope of employment. (5) This subdivision does not interfere with the court's power to grant probation in a suitable case. (g) If the court grants probation to a person subject to punishment under subdivision (f), in addition to subdivision (f) and any other terms and conditions imposed by the court, which may include a fine, the court shall impose as a condition of probation that the person be confined in a county jail for not less than 48 hours nor more than six months. The court shall order the person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle to be suspended for a period of six months, as provided in paragraph (9) of subdivision (a) of Section 13352 or restricted pursuant to subdivision (f).”)

6 Same.

See also Vehicle Code 23109.1 VC – Speed contests causing injury. (“(a) A person convicted of engaging in a motor vehicle speed contest in violation of subdivision (a) of Section 23109 that proximately causes one or more of the injuries specified in subdivision (b) to a person other than the driver, shall be punished by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code, or by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than 30 days nor more than six months, or by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars ($500) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment. (b) This section applies to all of the following injuries: (1) A loss of consciousness. (2) A concussion. (3) A bone fracture. (4) A protracted loss or impairment of function of a bodily member or organ. (5) A wound requiring extensive suturing. (6) A serious disfigurement. (7) Brain injury. (8) Paralysis. (c) This section does not preclude or prohibit prosecution under any other provision of law.”)

7 CALCRIM 2201 – Speed Contest (Veh. Code, § 23109(c), (e)(2), (f)(1)–(3)). (“The defendant is charged [in Count ] with engaging in a speed contest [in violation of Vehicle Code section 23109]. To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must prove that: 1. The defendant drove a motor vehicle on a highway; [AND] 2. While so driving, the defendant willfully engaged in a speed contest(./;) [AND] 3. The speed contest was a substantial factor in causing someone other than the defendant to suffer [serious] bodily injury.]”)

8 CALCRIM 2201 – Speed Contest (Veh. Code, § 23109(c), (e)(2), (f)(1)–(3)). (“[A motor vehicle includes a (passenger vehicle/motorcycle/bus/ school bus/commercial vehicle/truck tractor/ <insert other type of motor vehicle>).]”)

9 CALCRIM 2201 – Speed Contest (Veh. Code, § 23109(c), (e)(2), (f)(1)–(3)). (“[The term highway describes any area publicly maintained and open to the public for purposes of vehicular travel, and includes a street.]”)

10 CALCRIM 2201 – Speed Contest (Veh. Code, § 23109(c), (e)(2), (f)(1)–(3)). (“Someone commits an act willfully when he or she does it willingly or on purpose. It is not required that he or she intend to break the law, hurt someone else, or gain any advantage.”)

11 Vehicle Code 23109 VC – Speed contests, subsection (b), endnote 1, above.

12 CALCRIM 2201 – Speed Contest (Veh. Code, § 23109(c), (e)(2), (f)(1)–(3)). (“A person engages in a speed contest when he or she uses a motor vehicle to race against another vehicle, a clock, or other timing device. [A speed contest does not include an event in which the participants measure the time required to cover a set route of more than 20 miles but where the vehicle does not exceed the speed limits.]”)

13 Same.

14 Vehicle Code 23109 VC – Speed contests, subsection (e)(1), endnote 3, above.

15 Same.

16 Vehicle Code 23109 VC – Speed contests, subsections (e) and (f), endnote 5, above.

17 Same.

18 Same.

19 Same.

20 See endnote 6, above.

21 Same.

22 Same.

See also Penal Code 1170(h) – Determinate sentencing. (“(h)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), a felony punishable pursuant to this subdivision where the term is not specified in the underlying offense [such as felony speed contests causing serious bodily injury] shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment in a county jail for 16 months, or two or three years.”)

See also Penal Code 672 PC. (“Upon a conviction for any crime punishable by imprisonment in any jail or prison, in relation to which no fine is herein prescribed [such as felony speed contests causing serious bodily injury], the court may impose a fine on the offender not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000) in cases of misdemeanors or ten thousand dollars ($10,000) in cases of felonies, in addition to the imprisonment prescribed.”)

23 Penal Code 243(f)(4) PC [applies to California speed contest causing serious bodily injury]. (“"Serious bodily injury" means a serious impairment of physical condition, including, but not limited to, the following: loss of consciousness; concussion; bone fracture; protracted loss or impairment of function of any bodily member or organ; a wound requiring extensive suturing; and serious disfigurement.”)

24 Vehicle Code 23109.2 VC – Impoundment of vehicle after speed contest. (“(a) (1) Whenever a peace officer determines that a person was engaged in any of the activities set forth in paragraph (2), the peace officer may immediately arrest and take into custody that person and may cause the removal and seizure of the motor vehicle used in that offense in accordance with Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 22650). A motor vehicle so seized may be impounded for not more than 30 days. (2) (A) A motor vehicle speed contest, as described in subdivision (a) of Section 23109. . . . (D) Exhibition of speed on a highway, as described in subdivision (c) of Section 23109. (b) The registered and legal owner of a vehicle removed and seized under subdivision (a) or their agents shall be provided the opportunity for a storage hearing to determine the validity of the storage in accordance with Section 22852. (c) (1) Notwithstanding Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 22650) or any other provision of law, an impounding agency shall release a motor vehicle to the registered owner or his or her agent prior to the conclusion of the impoundment period described in subdivision (a) under any of the following circumstances: (A) If the vehicle is a stolen vehicle. (B) If the person alleged to have been engaged in the motor vehicle speed contest, as described in subdivision (a), was not authorized by the registered owner of the motor vehicle to operate the motor vehicle at the time of the commission of the offense. (C) If the registered owner of the vehicle was neither the driver nor a passenger of the vehicle at the time of the alleged violation pursuant to subdivision (a), or was unaware that the driver was using the vehicle to engage in any of the activities described in subdivision (a). (D) If the legal owner or registered owner of the vehicle is a rental car agency. (E) If, prior to the conclusion of the impoundment period, a citation or notice is dismissed under Section 40500, criminal charges are not filed by the district attorney because of a lack of evidence, or the charges are otherwise dismissed by the court.”)

25 Same.

26 CALCRIM 2201 – Speed Contest (Veh. Code, § 23109(c), (e)(2), (f)(1)–(3)), endnote 9, above.

27 Vehicle Code 23109(c) VC -- Exhibition of speed [closely related offense to speed contests]. 

28 Vehicle Code 23109(I) VC -- Penalties for exhibition of speed.

29 Los Angeles DUI defense attorney John Murray is an expert specialist in crimes involving the California Vehicle Code, including VC 23109. He works closely with his clients, and carefully chosen private investigators and experts, to build the strongest defense in cases ranging from DUI to driving on a suspended license to speed contests. He has extensive experience both in the court systems of Los Angeles County and Ventura County and in California DMV hearings .

30 Vehicle Code 23103 VC – Reckless driving [may be charged along with or instead of speed contests]. 

31 Vehicle Code 23103.5 VC – Reckless driving as a plea bargain ["wet reckless"; related offense to speed contests]. 

32 Vehicle Code 23103 VC – Reckless driving [may be charged along with or instead of speed contests], endnote 30 above.

33 Vehicle Code 2800.1 VC – Flight from pursuing peace officer [may be charged along with speed contests]. 

34 Vehicle Code 2800.2 VC – Flight from pursuing peace officer [may be charged along with speed contests]. 

35 Vehicle Code 2800.1 VC – Flight from pursuing peace officer [may be charged along with speed contests], endnote 33, above.

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