California DMV "Negligent Operator" Hearings

If the California Department of Motor Vehicles determines that you are a so-called "negligent operator," your driver's license could be suspended or revoked.

Under the DMV's negligent operator treatment system ("NOTS"), you can get yourself declared a negligent operator in California by accumulating traffic violation "points" on your driving record. You accumulate points for at-fault accidents violations of traffic laws -- both minor and major violations.

For example, you earn one point on your record for things like

  • Speeding,
  • Failing to yield the right of way to a pedestrian, or
  • Turning or changing lanes without signaling.

And you receive two points for more serious violations, such as

  • Driving on a suspended or revoked license,
  • A hit and run, or
  • A DUI conviction.

If you accumulate enough points within a 1-, 2- or 3-year period, the DMV can declare you a negligent operator and suspend -- or even revoke -- your driving privileges.

Negligent operator hearings

For many people, a negligent operator designation -- and a driver's license suspension as a result -- might as well be a criminal sentence. Many of us need to drive in order to work and support our families, maintain a functioning social life...and even buy groceries.

If you receive a letter from the DMV declaring you a negligent operator, your best bet is to request a negligent operator hearing to challenge this.

This hearing is your best shot at getting the designation reversed. An experienced California DMV hearing attorney who understands the negligent operator treatment system can help you fight to save your driving privileges.

Potential "defenses" that you can use to fight a negligent operator license suspension include:

  • You were not responsible for an accident on your driving record;
  • You drive more than most people -- or under more challenging conditions -- and so are more likely to accumulate violations;
  • You're taking positive steps toward remedying the problem (you're enrolled in a driver safety program, for example); and/or
  • Your overall driving history is acceptable and your reported violations weren't that severe.

In order to help you understand the DMV's negligent operator treatment system (NOTS), our California DMV hearing attorneys will address the following:

1. California Traffic Violation Points and Negligent Operator Status
2. The California DMV's Negligent Operator Treatment System ("NOTS")

2.1. Initial warning letter

2.2. Notice of intent to suspend

2.3. Order of probation/suspension

2.4. Violation of NOTS probation

3. California Negligent Operator Hearings

3.1. What happens at a negligent operator hearing

3.2. "Defenses" against a negligent operator designation

3.3. Possible outcomes of a negligent operator hearing

4. Commercial Drivers and the Negligent Operator Treatment System
5. License Suspension or Revocation for Reasons Other than Negligent Operation

5.1. California DUI convictions

5.2. Medical conditions

If, after reading this article, you would like more information, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group.

1. California Traffic Violation Points and Negligent Operator Status

If you are declared a "negligent operator" in California, it is most likely because you have accumulated a certain number of traffic violation "points" on your driving record.

The California DMV issues points for four main categories of events:

  • accidents,
  • moving violations,
  • mechanical violations that affect safe driving, and
  • criminal driving offenses.

Accidents

If you are involved in a traffic accident ... and the DMV determines that you were responsible for causing the accident ... you will receive one (1) point.

Moving violations

Most moving violations are assigned one (1) point. These include violations such as:

  • Speeding,
  • Running a stop sign,
  • Crossing double yellow lines,
  • Illegal passing,
  • Turning across a bicycle lane, and
  • Driving with an open container of alcohol.

Mechanical violations

You can even earn points for driving a car that is in a condition that compromises its safety. For example, you will receive one (1) point if you drive a car with faulty brakes.

Criminal driving offenses

More serious criminal violations of the motor vehicle code will usually earn you two (2) points. These include:

And it's not only California traffic violations that earn you points. Out-of-state convictions, violations, and accidents earn you the same points you would earn for the same violation in California.

Example: Carol has a California driver's license. Early in 2011, while visiting Texas, she runs into a streetlamp and leaves the scene of the accident.

This leads to her being convicted in a Texas court of misdemeanor hit and run. That conviction earns her two (2) traffic violation points.

Later in that same year, back in California, Carol is cited for illegal passing, which earns her one (1) point.  Carol now has three (3) points on her record.

2. The California DMV's Negligent Operator Treatment System ("NOTS")

The California DMV's negligent operator treatment system (NOTS) is a four-step process involving warning letters and sanctions.  It's basically the process the DMV must follow before they can suspend your license for being a negligent driver.

The steps are as follows:

2.1. Initial warning letter

You will receive an initial warning letter if you accumulate

  • Two (2) points within any twelve (12)-month period,
  • Four (4) points within any twenty-four (24)-month period, or
  • Six (6) points within any thirty-six (36)-month period.

This is also known as a negligent operator "Level I" letter.

Example: Recall Carol from our example above. When Carol is convicted of misdemeanor hit and run, she immediately earns 2 points. Because she has accumulated 2 points in a 12-month period, she will receive an initial warning letter right after her conviction, letting her know that she is in danger of a negligent operator designation.

2.2. Notice of intent to suspend

You will receive a letter notifying you that the department intends to suspend your license for being a negligent operator once you accumulate

  • Three (3) points within any twelve (12)-month period,
  • Five (5) points within any twenty-four (24)-month period, or
  • Seven (7) points within any thirty-six (36)-month period.

This notice of intent to suspend is also known as a "Level II" letter.

Example: Let's return to Carol from above.  She is convicted of misdemeanor hit and run, earning 2 points, early in 2011.  Later that same year, she receives 1 more point for illegal passing. Because she now has received 3 points in a 12-month period, she will receive a notice of intent to suspend because she is a negligent operator.

2.3. Order of probation/suspension

An Order of Probation/Suspension -- also known as a "Level III" letter -- will be sent you to if you accumulate

  • Four (4) points within any twelve (12)-month period,
  • Six (6) points within any twenty-four (24)-month period, or
  • Eight (8) points within any thirty-six (36)-month period.

The Level III letter will inform you that, within thirty-four (34) days of the date of the letter, the following will occur:

  1. You will be declared a negligent operator, and your driver's license will be suspended for six (6) months, and
  2. You will be placed on probation for one (1) year. This probation period will begin at the same time as the license suspension (i.e., it will run concurrently with it). (We will discuss what being on probation means in more detail in Section 2.4.

If you request a DMV negligent operator hearing (we will discuss these in Section 3 below) after getting a Level III letter, the hearing officer will presume that you should be declared a negligent operator. It will be your and your attorney's job to rebut this presumption.

Example: Carol from our examples above accumulated 3 points on her record in 2011. Now let's say that in 2012 she is cited three times for moving violations: once for running a stop sign, once for speeding, and once for violating open container laws by driving while a passenger in her back seat sips a beer.

Carol now has 6 points on her record. And she has accumulated the points in a 24-month period. This means that she will receive a Level III letter and be presumed to be a negligent operator.

2.4. Violation of NOTS probation

If your driver's license is suspended on the grounds that you are a negligent operator, you will also be put on probation for one (1) year. If you violate your probation in that year, you will receive a violation of NOTS probation letter (also known as a "Level IV" letter).

Here are the penalties for violating your California DMV probation as a negligent operator:

  1. An additional six (6)-month driver's license suspension -- and an additional one (1) year of probation -- for each of your first two (2) violations of probation, and
  2. A one (1) year driver's license revocation after your third violation of probation.

(The difference between a license suspension and a license revocation is that ... after a revocation period is over ... you will need to apply for a new license. )

And here are some of the ways in which you can violate your negligent operator probationary license:

  • Any moving violation ... or being involved in any traffic accident, regardless of who is at fault ... while your license is suspended for being a negligent operator,
  • Any 1- or 2-point violation while on probation,
  • Any traffic accident that you cause while on probation, or
  • Any "failure to appear" (FTA) in court on a traffic violation.

3. California Negligent Operator Hearings

If you receive a Letter III or Letter IV letter under California's negligent operator treatment system, you would be well-advised to request a negligent operator hearing (also known as a "NOTS hearing") with the DMV as soon as possible.

Negligent operator hearings are not granted automatically. You need to request one, within ten (10) days of receiving a negligent operator letter.

If the DMV is unable to schedule your hearing for before the date of your suspension, the suspension usually will be postponed pending the hearing's outcome. (The exception to this is if you have a physical or medical condition that the DMV believes is an immediate driving hazard.  If this is the case, your suspension will go into effect immediately and will not be postponed.)

According to Van Nuys criminal defense attorney John Murray :

"The consequences of a license suspension can be almost as devastating as a prison sentence for many people. So even though a California negligent operator hearing is not a criminal proceeding ... you have the right to be represented by an attorney.

The DMV hearing officer will have the biased attitude that you are probably a negligent operator. That's why it's important to hire an attorney. An experienced DMV hearing attorney will understand the Vehicle Code and California DMV procedures ... and will help find the best way to minimize the consequences to you of a negligent operator letter."

3.1. What happens at a negligent operator hearing

Your negligent operator hearing will take place at a DMV driver safety branch office and will be conducted by a DMV hearing officer.

The California NOTS hearing serves three purposes:

  1. to evaluate your driving record critically,
  2. to determine whether you should be declared a negligent operator, and
  3. to determine what action (if any) should be taken against your driver's license.

The content that can be discussed at a California negligent operator hearing is limited.  The only issues that will be considered by the hearing officer are:

  • Whether your driving record is accurate,
  • Whether you have any pending court charges and/or convictions that aren't on the DMV's record,
  • Whether you are responsible for the accidents on your driving record,
  • Whether alcohol played a role in any of the violations that appear on your driving record,
  • Whether physical and/or mental conditions contributed to any of the violations that appear on
  • Whether any mitigating factors (which help your case) or aggravating factors (which hurt it) should be taken into account.

In a criminal proceeding the prosecutor must prove your guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. But in a DMV negligent operator hearing, the hearing officer must only conclude that it is "more likely than not" that you are a negligent operator. This standard is known as a "preponderance of the evidence."

3.2. "Defenses" against a negligent operator designation

You were not responsible for an accident on your driving record

As we discussed above, you receive 1 point on your driving record for being involved in a traffic accident in which you were at fault.   This point may be responsible for you receiving a negligent operator letter and facing a potential suspension of your driver's license.

But it isn't always easy to determine who was at fault in an accident. You and your attorney could offer testimony or other evidence about

  • road conditions,
  • weather, and/or
  • the other driver's behavior,

in order to show that you were not at fault and do not deserve a negligent operator designation.

Mitigating circumstances

Certain "mitigating circumstances" can help to show that ... even if you do have the necessary number of points to be deemed a California negligent operator ... you do not deserve to have your license suspended. These mitigating circumstances might include:

  • You drive more than the average driver (making it more likely that you will receive more citations than others);
  • You're taking positive steps toward remedying the problem (you're enrolled in a driver safety program, for example);
  • Your overall driving history is acceptable and your reported violations weren't that severe;
  • You have no alcohol-related violations; and/or
  • Your job, school, etc., requires you to drive in densely populated areas where accidents are more common than in other areas of California.
Example: Walter is a community college student in Los Angeles who works nights delivering pizza. He takes classes at several different campuses in order to accommodate his work schedule and get the credits he needs.

Thus, he drives an unusual number of miles, in densely populated parts of Los Angeles. Also, his pizza delivery job forces him to drive frequently at night (when it is easier to overlook stop signs, bike lanes, etc.) in unfamiliar neighborhoods.

Walter accumulates a large number of moving violations in a two-year period and receives a negligent operator letter. But he hires an attorney to help him at his DMV hearing. The attorney presents evidence showing that all of these mitigating circumstances are true ... and also points out that none of Walter's individual violations was particularly serious or alcohol-related.

As a result, the DMV hearing officer decides to put Walter on probation rather than suspending his license.

3.3. Possible outcomes of a negligent operator hearing

At the conclusion of your NOTS hearing, the California DMV has several options.

(1) If your California negligent operator hearing defense attorney has persuaded the hearing officer that your license shouldn't be suspended or revoked, the DMV may set aside the suspension.

(2) If the DMV isn't willing to completely set aside your suspension but believes that you may be "turning the corner," it may place you on negligent operator probation.  A probation sentence may include conditions that you remain violation-free and don't cause any more accidents.

(3) The DMV may suspend your regular license...but grant you a restricted license that allows you drive under limited, specific conditions (for example, to and from work or school). If you are caught driving outside the scope of these restrictions, you will most likely face a full suspension.

(4) The worst case scenario is that the DMV sustains its finding and imposes the negligent operator suspension without change. Once your license is suspended, you must not drive during the period of suspension ... if you do, you may face criminal charges for driving on a suspended license (California Vehicle Code 14601 VC).

Challenging a license suspension for negligent operation

If your license is suspended after a NOTS hearing, you are not completely out of luck. You may request what is called a DMV "departmental review" of the decision ... but you must do so within fifteen (15) days of the hearing decision.

If you request a departmental review of a negligent operator license suspension, the suspension won't go into effect until the review is finished.  The DMV will examine the hearing record, including all the evidence presented at the hearing, in order to determine whether the hearing officer made the correct decision. You do not need to attend another hearing if you request a departmental review.

And, if that fails ... you have

  • Thirty-five (35) days after notice of the results of your hearing, or
  • Ninety-five (95) days after notice of the results of a departmental review (if you requested one),

to challenge your negligent operator license suspension in California Superior Court. You can do this by filing something called a "Petition for Alternative Writ of Mandate."  The deadlines and process for doing so are complicated ... a good DMV attorney is highly recommended if you go this route.

Reinstating a driver's license suspended for negligent operation

Once your suspension or revocation expires, you must take affirmative steps to get your license back. Specifically, you are required to

  1. contact the DMV,
  2. pay an administrative fee,
  3. show proof of insurance, and
  4. maintain that insurance for at least three (3) years.

4. Commercial Drivers and the Negligent Operator Treatment System

If you hold a class "A" or "B" commercial driver's license, the rules for negligent operator suspensions are a bit different.

First of all, every violation will receive one and one-half (1.5) times the number of points that a driver who holds a regular class "C" license would receive.

Example: Eric is a truck driver who holds a commercial driver's license allowing him to drive a tractor-trailer. Eric commits a moving violation when he runs a stop sign with his tractor-trailer. But instead of getting only 1 point on his record for the violation, he will get one and a half (1.5) points.

Second, though, it takes more points for a commercial driver to be presumed to be a negligent operator. With most commercial licenses, the number of points required to receive a Level III letter (order of probation/suspension) is as follows:

  • six (6) points within any twelve (12)-month period,
  • eight (8) points within any twenty-four (24)-month period, or
  • ten (10) points within any thirty-six (36)-month period.

However, these higher point requirements will not apply if it turns out that most of those points were accumulated while you were driving a vehicle that only requires a regular class "C" license.

5. License Suspension or Revocation for Reasons Other than Negligent Operation

5.1. California DUI convictions

Another very common way for someone to get their driver's license suspended in California—other than being deemed a negligent operator—is to be convicted of California DUI.

If you are convicted in a California criminal court of driving drunk in California, you will then receive a notice of license suspension...and will have the right to challenge the license suspension in a California DUI DMV hearing.  This hearing will be similar in format to the hearing you may request if you receive an NOTS letter claiming that you are a negligent operator.

5.2. Medical conditions

The California DMV will restrict, suspend, or even revoke your driver's license if it believes you suffer from a medical condition – such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease – that affects your ability to drive safely.  This is a common cause of driver's license suspensions for elderly drivers.

A driver's license suspension due to a physical or medical condition can be a devastating situation for someone who is already facing great personal difficulty. But in that situation—as with a negligent operator designation—you have the right to challenge your suspension at a DMV hearing, with the help of a DMV hearing attorney.  And you should make every effort to do so!

Call us for help...

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If you or loved one is charged with being a negligent operator and you are looking to hire an attorney for representation, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group. We can provide a free consultation in office or by phone. We have local offices in Los Angeles, the San Fernando Valley, Pasadena, Long Beach, Orange County, Ventura, San Bernardino, Rancho Cucamonga, Riverside, San Diego, Sacramento, Oakland, San Francisco, San Jose and throughout California.

If you have a Nevada drivers license, you may wish to read our article on the demerit point system and Nevada DMV.

Legal References:

  1. Vehicle Code 12809 VC – Grounds permitting refusal; operative date. ("The department may refuse to issue or renew a driver's license to any person: ... (e) If the department determines that the applicant is a negligent or incompetent operator of a motor vehicle.")
    See also Vehicle Code 13359 VC – Grounds for suspension or revocation. ("The department may suspend or revoke the privilege of any person to operate a motor vehicle upon any of the grounds which authorize the refusal to issue a license [including being declared a negligent operator].")
  2. Vehicle Code 12810 VC – Traffic violation point counts; allocation of points [for purposes of negligent operator designations]. ("In determining the violation point count, the following shall apply: (a) A conviction of failure to stop in the event of an accident in violation of Section 20001 or 20002 shall be given a value of two points. (b) A conviction of a violation of Section 23152 or 23153 shall be given a value of two points. (c) A conviction of reckless driving shall be given a value of two points. (d)(1) A conviction of a violation of subdivision (b) of Section 191.5 or subdivision (c) of Section 192 of the Penal Code, or of Section 2800.2 or 2800.3, subdivision (b) of Section 21651, subdivision (b) of Section 22348, subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 23109, Section 23109.1, or Section 31602 of this code, shall be given a value of two points. (2) A conviction of a violation of subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 23140 shall be given a value of two points. (e) A conviction of a violation of Section 14601, 14601.1, 14601.2, 14601.3, or 14601.5 shall be given a value of two points. (f) Except as provided in subdivision (i), any other traffic conviction involving the safe operation of a motor vehicle upon the highway shall be given a value of one point. (g) A traffic accident in which the operator is deemed by the department to be responsible shall be given a value of one point. (h) A conviction of a violation of Section 27360 or 27360.5 shall be given a value of one point. (i)(1) A violation of paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (5) of subdivision (b) of Section 40001 shall not result in a violation point count being given to the driver if the driver is not the owner of the vehicle. (2) A conviction of a violation of paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 12814.6, subdivision (a) of Section 21116, Section 21207.5, 21708, 21710, 21716, 23120, 24800, or 26707 shall not be given a violation point count. (3) A violation of subdivision (d) of Section 21712 shall not result in a violation point count. (4) A violation of Section 23136 shall not result in a violation point count. (5) A violation of Section 38301, 38301.3, 38301.5, 38304.1, or 38504.1 shall not result in a violation point count. (j) A conviction for only one violation arising from one occasion of arrest or citation shall be counted in determining the violation point count for the purposes of this section.")
  3. See same.
  4. Vehicle Code 12810.5 VC – Traffic violation point count; number for presumption of negligent operation; proof of financial responsibility. ("(a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), a person whose driving record shows a violation point count of four or more points in 12 months, six or more points in 24 months, or eight or more points in 36 months shall be prima facie presumed to be a negligent operator of a motor vehicle. In applying this subdivision to a driver, if the person requests and appears at a hearing conducted by the department, the department shall give due consideration to the amount of use or mileage traveled in the operation of a motor vehicle. (b)(1) A class A or class B licensed driver, except persons holding certificates pursuant to Section 12517, 12519, 12523, 12523.5, or 12527, or an endorsement issued pursuant to paragraph (2) or (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 15278, who is presumed to be a negligent operator pursuant to subdivision (a), and who requests and appears at a hearing and is found to have a driving record violation point count of six or more points in 12 months, eight or more points in 24 months, or 10 or more points in 36 months is presumed to be a prima facie negligent operator. However, the higher point count does not apply if the department reasonably determines that four or more points in 12 months, six or more points in 24 months, or eight or more points in 36 months are attributable to the driver's operation of a vehicle requiring only a class C license, and not requiring a certificate or endorsement, or a class M license. (2) For purposes of this subdivision, each point assigned pursuant to Section 12810 shall be valued at one and one-half times the value otherwise required by that section for each violation reasonably determined by the department to be attributable to the driver's operation of a vehicle requiring a class A or class B license, or requiring a certificate or endorsement described in this section. (c) The department may require a negligent operator whose driving privilege is suspended or revoked pursuant to this section to submit proof of financial responsibility, as defined in Section 16430, on or before the date of reinstatement following the suspension or revocation. The proof of financial responsibility shall be maintained with the department for three years following that date of reinstatement.")
  5. Vehicle Code 14100 VC – Demand for hearing [to contest the negligent operator declaration]; application; notice; contents. ("(a) Whenever the department has given notice, or has taken or proposes to take action under Section 12804.15, 13353, 13353.2, 13950, 13951, 13952, or 13953 [such as a license suspension or revocation for a negligent operator], the person receiving the notice or subject to the action may, within 10 days, demand a hearing which shall be granted, except as provided in Section 14101. (b) An application for a hearing does not stay the action by the department for which the notice is given. (c) The fact that a person has the right to request an administrative hearing within 10 days after receipt of the notice of the order of suspension under this section and Section 16070, and that the request is required to be made within 10 days in order to receive a determination prior to the effective date of the suspension shall be made prominent on the notice.")
  6. See Vehicle Code 12810 VC – Traffic violation point counts; allocation of points [for purposes of negligent operator designations], endnote 2, above.
  7. See same.
  8. See same.
  9. Vehicle Code 13363 VC – Conviction in Another State. ("(a) The department may, in its discretion, except as provided in Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 15000) of Division 6, of this code, suspend or revoke the privilege of any resident or nonresident to drive a motor vehicle in this State[on negligent operator grounds] upon receiving notice of the conviction of the person in a state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the Dominion of Canada of an offense therein which, if committed in this State, would be grounds for the suspension or revocation of the privilege to operate a motor vehicle [for being a negligent operator].")
  10. Vehicle Code 12810.5 VC – Traffic violation point count; number for presumption of negligent operation; proof of financial responsibility, endnote 4, above.
  11. See same.
  12. See Vehicle Code 14252 VC – Withdrawal of probationary license [after a negligent operator designation]. ("The department upon receiving satisfactory evidence of a violation of any of the terms or conditions of probation imposed under this code, may withdraw the probationary license and order the suspension or revocation of the privilege to operate a motor vehicle.")
  13. Vehicle Code 13101 VC – Revocation [including for a negligent operator probation violation]. ("When used in reference to a driver's license, "revocation" means that the person's privilege to drive a motor vehicle is terminated and a new driver's license may be obtained after the period of revocation.")

    See also Vehicle Code 13102 VC – Suspension [for being a negligent operator]; examination. ("When used in reference to a driver's license, "suspension" means that the person's privilege to drive a motor vehicle is temporarily withdrawn. The department may, before terminating any suspension based upon a physical or mental condition of the licensee, require such examination of the licensee as deemed appropriate in relation to evidence of any condition which may affect the ability of the licensee to safely operate a motor vehicle.")
  14. Vehicle Code 14100 VC – Demand for hearing [to contest the negligent operator declaration], endnote 5, above
  15. Van Nuys DMV hearing and DUI defense attorney John Murray has earned a statewide reputation for representing clients at DMV hearing locations throughout southern California, including those in the City of Commerce, Covina, El Segundo, Oxnard, San Bernardino, and Van Nuys. He has extensive expertise with the California Vehicle Code and negligent operator hearings and has saved the driver's licenses of countless thankful clients.
  16. See Vehicle Code 12810 VC – Traffic violation point counts; allocation of points [for purposes of negligent operator designations], endnote 2, above.
  17. Vehicle Code 12813 VC – Restricted licenses. ("(b) The department may issue either a special restricted license [in the case of a negligent operator designation] or may set forth the restrictions upon the usual license form.")
  18. Vehicle Code 14105.5 VC – Department review [of NOTS hearing decisions]. ("a) The person subject to a hearing may request a review of the decision taken under Section 14105 within 15 days of the effective date of the decision. (b) On receipt of a request for review, the department shall stay the action pending a decision on review, unless the hearing followed an action pursuant to Section 13353, 13353.2, or 13953. The review shall include an examination of the hearing report, documentary evidence, and findings. The hearing officer or hearing board conducting the original hearing may not participate in the review process. (c) Following the review, a written notice of the department's decision shall be mailed to the person involved. If the action has been stayed pending review, the department's decision shall take effect as stated in the notice, but not less than four nor more than 15 days after the notice is mailed.")
  19. See same.
  20. See, e.g., Orange County Superior Court, "How do I ask the court to review DMV's suspension of my license?"
  21. Vehicle Code 12810.5(c) VC – Traffic violation point count; number for presumption of negligent operation; proof of financial responsibility, endnote 4, above.
  22. Vehicle Code 12810(b) VC – Traffic violation point counts; allocation of points [for purposes of negligent operator designations], endnote 2, above.
  23. Vehicle Code 12810.5 VC – Traffic violation point count; number for presumption of negligent operation; proof of financial responsibility, endnote 4, above.
  24. See same.
  25. Vehicle Code 14100 VC – Demand for hearing, endnote 5, above.
  26. Vehicle Code 13352 VC -- Conviction for driving under the influence or engaging in speed contests or exhibitions of speed; terms of suspension or revocation of license [compare to terms of suspension for negligent operators]; eligibility for restricted license; reinstatement conditions.
  27. Vehicle Code 12806(c) VC -- Refusal to issue or renew driver's license; discretionary grounds [compare to revocation due to negligent operation]. ("The department may refuse to issue to, or renew a driver's license of, any person:(c) Who has a disorder characterized by lapses of consciousness or who has experienced, within the last three years, either a lapse of consciousness or an episode of marked confusion caused by any condition which may bring about recurrent lapses, or who has any physical or mental disability, disease, or disorder which could affect the safe operation of a motor vehicle unless the department has medical information which indicates the person may safely operate a motor vehicle. In making its determination, the department may rely on any relevant information available to the department.")
  28. Vehicle Code 14100 VC – Demand for hearing, endnote 5, above.

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